58.Speech and Audio Processing by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Tc͖) to predict ytc. Future input information coming up later than tc is usually also useful for prediction. With an RNN, this can be partially achieved by delaying the output by a certain number of S time frames to include future information up to xtcϩS to predict ytc. Theoretically, S could be made very large to capture all the available future information, but in practice it is found that prediction results drop if S is too large. For speech recognition, S is commonly set to around 3 to 6 frames, corresponding to a delay of about 30 to 60 ms.

Thus, when destination-tag routing is used, the source address has to be added to the message header. This overhead can be avoided by using the XOR-routing algorithm. During XOR routing, an n-bit routing tag T that is formed by XORing the source and the destination address (T ϭ S  D) is added to each message as a message header. If a message enters a switch box in stage k, this switch box will examine the kth bit of the message routing tag T. , if it arrived at the upper input, it will be routed to the upper output).

5. The number of switches in the middle stage determines the number of distinct paths from each source to each destination (in Fig. 5, there are four distinct paths between any source and destination). Another multipath indirect network topology that is used in parallel computers is the fat-tree network (18). The binary fat-tree network has the topology of a binary tree in which the leaves are connected to the processing elements and the root and intermediate tree nodes are switch boxes. All interconnection links are bidirectional.

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