A Grammar of Mina by Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric

By Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Johnston, Eric

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Noun stems The noun stem may have any of the following forms (phrase-final forms are quoted): CV CVC VCV CCV CCVC CVCV CVCCV CVCVC CVC VCV CVCCVCV CVCC(C)VC CVCVCVC %a 'cow', mbü 'child' dok 'horse' ma 'Hina' (place name) nan 'sorghum' kram 'dry season', vrdts 'mosquito' damü 'bush' manwa 'pancreas' kztdf'road', zavay 'hump, humpback' newene or neweni 'salt' mafcägä 'cloth' dungur 'animal hump', wirnßk 'ashes' tsltselem [cicelem] 'wood' More-complex lexical structures appear to be composites of several morphemes, lexical, derivational and inflectional, described in the next section.

The verb must have an underlying palatal glide, which is realized as such when the verb is followed by a low vowel. The evidence for the presence of the palatal glide is provided by the fact that the low vowel is not fronted: (56) kd tly-a zä -» INF see-GO EE '[he went there] to have a look' [ko tiy-ä zä] (57) kd tly-a-k zä INF see-GO-1SG EE 'he looked at me' [ko tiy-a-k zä] -» We interpret the absence of raising in the examples above as further evidence that the verb 'to look' is in fact tiy, not tl, and that the palatal glide is a barrier to vowel raising.

First an illustration of vowel deletion: (60) si tatag 3PL run 3PL 'they escaped' -» [i si tstarj ] häza to bitsi dog GEN Bitsi 'Bitsi's dog' -* [has to bici] -> [iststarj ] 22 Phonology to bitsi cow GEN Bitsi 'Bitsi 's cow' -» [{59 t9 bitsi] If the final vowel of a word is a derivational morpheme, as is the case with fci 'meat', most probably derived from fca 'cow', such a vowel is not deleted in contexts in which lexical vowels are always deleted: (61) foi to gdldärn-* meat GEN pig 'pork' [fei to gsldam] Vowel deletion is a means of coding phrasal boundary.

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