By Becker G. F.
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Additional resources for A Possible Origin for Some Spiral Nebulae (1916)(en)(8s)
8 Ropey lava (pahoehoe), Craters of the Moon, Idaho. overlies a vesicular layer, at times the vesicles becoming so abundant that they merge. The skin tends to flake off, revealing the vesicular surface beneath. Sometimes the crust of the lava may be broken into a series of slabs by the movement of the still liquid material beneath. With the exception of flows of flood eruptions, all large pahoehoe flows consist of several units. Large flows are fed by a complex of internal streams beneath the crust, each stream being surrounded by less mobile lava.
Extremely fine particles can be thrown into the stratosphere and circle the Earth for months or years. This can affect solar radiation by absorbing, reflecting or scattering it and may obscure the Sun for several hours. e. 0°C). G. Bell 32 Volcanic activity eruptions of this sort can cause respiratory problems in people and animals, and can lead to silicosis. Crops can be damaged or destroyed by fine ash-fall. Long, dry periods coupled with windy conditions can increase the ash content in the air, which can also be responsible for respiratory ailments.
In any assessment of risk due to volcanic activity the number of lives at stake, the capital value of the property and the productive capacity of the area concerned have to be taken into account. Evacuation from danger areas is possible if enough time is available. However, the vulnerability of property is frequently close to 100% in the case of most violent volcanic eruptions. Hazard must also be taken into account in such an assessment (Tilling, 1989). , 1989). Hazard is the most difficult of factors to estimate, mainly because violent eruptions are rare events about which there are insufficient observational data for effective analysis.