By Stefano Basagni; et al
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On the other hand, reducing transmission power also means a smaller number of feasible links among nodes and, hence, lower connectivity. These two effects have an opposite impact on energy consumption. A large part of recent work on energy efficiency in ad hoc networks is concentrated on energy-efficient routing [164–167], in which the transmitting power level is an additional variable in the routing protocol design . Numerous energy-conscious routing protocols have been proposed. For example, Minimum Power Routing (MPR) selects the path between a given source and destination that will require the least amount of total power expected, while still maintaining an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio at each receiver [89, 91].
These features make location-aware routing protocols quickly adaptive to route changes, and more scalable than unicast protocols such as AODV, DSDV, or DSR. DREAM, the first location-based routing protocol, utilized the idea of the “distance factor,” allowing optimized performance to be obtained based on the observation that the further the nodes are from each other, the slower they appear to be moving . Hence, less routing information has to be transferred between remote nodes. As demonstrated in , location-based protocols can yield an order of magnitude improvement in performance and bandwidth/energy usage by utilizing location information in routing.
In addition, they often provide graphical interfaces that can be used both during the model development phase and during simulation runs to simplify the following dynamic protocol and network behaviors. Some recent results, however, question the validity of simulations based on these tools. Specifically,  presents results of the flooding algorithm using OPNET, NS-2, and Glomosim, as significant disparities between the simulators have been measured recently. The observed differences are not only quantitative (not the same absolute value), but also 32 MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING WITH A VIEW OF 4G WIRELESS: IMPERATIVES AND CHALLENGES qualitative (not the same general behavior), making some past observations of MANET simulation studies an open issue.