By S. Tanvir Wasti, Guney Ozcebe
Earthquakes affecting city parts may end up in catastrophic events and chance mitigation calls for preparatory measures in any respect degrees. Structural evaluate is the analysis of the seismic future health of constructions. overview is the prelude to judgements approximately rehabilitation or perhaps demolition. the size of the matter in dense city settings brings a few desire for macro seismic appraisal systems simply because huge numbers of current structures don't comply with the elevated specifications of recent earthquake codes and requirements or produce other deficiencies. it's the susceptible constructions - prone to reason harm and dying - that want instant recognition and pressing appraisal for you to make a decision if structural rehabilitation and upgrading are possible. present fiscal, effective and occupant-friendly rehabilitation ideas range greatly and comprise the appliance both of precast concrete panels or layers, strips and patches of fiber bolstered polymers (FRP) in strategic destinations. The papers during this publication, many by way of popular professionals in earthquake engineering, chart new and important instructions of analysis and alertness within the evaluate and rehabilitation of constructions in seismic areas. whereas numerous papers talk about the probabilistic prediction and quantification of structural harm, others current techniques comparable with the in-situ and occupant pleasant upgrading of structures and suggest either within your means and useful options to handle the matter.
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Additional resources for Advances in Earthquake Engineering for Urban Risk Reduction (NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences)
N. BOUSIAS ET AL. 1. Introduction Columns are normally the weak links in existing concrete buildings in seismic regions, especially if vertical bars are insufficiently lap-spliced at floor level. To extend the life of these buildings, such column deficiencies should normally be corrected. This paper describes test results on columns with or without lap splices, retrofitted via either wrapping of the plastic hinge region with CFRP sheets, or concrete jacketing of the entire column. Test results supplement those of other experimental campaigns in the literature, in order to develop simple rules and analytical tools for calculation of the effect of concrete or FRP jackets on: (a) yield strength, (b) yield deflection and the associated secant-to-yielding stiffness; and (c) ultimate deflection in cyclic loading, in columns with or without lap splicing at the base.
The test results in Table 1 for R-type columns show that in FRP-retrofitted columns with straight ribbed bars, five CFRP layers are more effective than two layers; nonetheless, the improvement in effectiveness is not commensurate to the number of FRP layers. Test results also suggest that there is a limit to the improvement due to FRP wrapping: if the lapping of straight ribbed bars is as short as 15 bar-diameters, its adverse effects on force capacity and energy dissipation cannot be fully removed by FRP wrapping.
I say it is not techne but money that will save the City. Ali Ihsan Bey, a banker and one of my customers, proposed a much simpler and not so expensive solution. If you start making technical judgments about which building should stay and which buildings should not stay, our lawyers will trip you up in almost all cases. Any action to raze and rebuild may take years. Ali Ihsan Bey has a workable plan. First, the engineers identify the vulnerable buildings. This does not result in a great deal of hassle because the owners are given the option to rebuild or not to rebuild.