An Introduction to Microwave Measurements by Ananjan Basu

By Ananjan Basu

"This e-book begins with a short evaluate, after which supplies a quick precis of the elemental idea and the development blocks required to appreciate and use microwave size concepts. After a short description of older size suggestions (slotted wave advisor etc.) the booklet offers a pretty unique description of the vector community analyzer and the spectrum analyzer, which shape the spine of contemporary microwave Read more...

summary: "This e-book starts off with a short review, after which provides a brief precis of the elemental concept and the development blocks required to appreciate and use microwave size strategies. After a quick description of older dimension strategies (slotted wave advisor etc.) the publication supplies a reasonably specific description of the vector community analyzer and the spectrum analyzer, which shape the spine of contemporary microwave measurements. complicated subject matters resembling pulsed measurements and non-linear community research are just pointed out in passing"

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33 Background Information The analysis is well known in textbooks and is left as an exercise (problem 4). 8 In this example, we show amplitude modulation (AM) noise. Let x(t) = {A + n(t)} cos2π f0t be a voltage signal feeding a resistor R. n(t) is a noise signal that is: 1. Zero mean. 2. , the power spectral density Sn(f) is not negligible only in a small range –fn to f n where f n<< f0. 3. Sn(f) = R1 × Fourier transform of Rn(τ). To evaluate R x(τ) and then Sx(f), we proceed as follows: R x(τ) is evaluated by averaging over a long time interval—we are invoking ergodicity (Papoulis 1984).

T) is small, loosely speaking, |ϕ|<< 2π. 3. ϕ(t) is slowly varying; Sϕ(f) is not negligible in only a small range –fϕ to fϕ, where fϕ << f0. 4. The PSD of ϕ is simply the Fourier transform of Rϕ(τ). A factor (1/R) is not included. Now, x(t) = A cos2πf0 t cosϕ (t) – A sin(2πf0 t) sinϕ(t). 1 Microwave Filters Microwave filters are essential components in most measurement setups. Low-pass and band-pass filters are the ones commonly used, while highpass and band-stop filters are rare in measurement setups.

This uses two FETs, only one of which is ON at any instant, due to the inverter. 3 Microwave Attenuators The attenuator is perhaps the simplest microwave component. It is a twoport component and is simply described by the S-parameters: S11 = S22 = 0; S21 = S12 = A. A is a real positive number less than 1, and (–20 log10 A) is the attenuation factor. 5. 1. An attenuator with fixed A can be easily realized with a three-resistor T or pi network. 26 A microwave SPDT switch using two FETs and an inverter.

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