An outline of Chitonga grammar by Hazel Carter

By Hazel Carter

This is often the fourth in a chain of person guides on Zambian languages and grammar. The goal of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which turned rather in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian govt to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guide. This quantity offers a grammatical caricature of Tonga, a Bantu language spoken in southern Zambia. it's the mom tongue of a few 800,000 humans. Chapters disguise humans and dialects, sound platforms and orthography, morphology and syntax.

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36 Table ofAdjectival Prefix Seriesand PossessiveConcords Clasv API pelon AP3 AP4a. AP4b AP5 Possessive Possessive prcfix stem Class l: . bo 3 mu- lto- uu- uu- ytiu- a- íwa- -wó 4 mi- yo- ii- ii- (y)íi- tì- tya' -yó 5 @-/c-(lQ lyo- íli- elt- léli- lì- ílyo- -ltó 6 ma- o- arlt- (ut- yrid- ct- áa- -tt 7 ci- co- ici- ecí- céci- ci- íca- -có 8 (z(y)D zyo- iz(y)i- ez(y)i' zéz(ji- z(y)i- ízya- -zyó 9 ff- yo- (y)íi. o- iz(y)i. Those which can be so segÍnentedhave been deaft with above. The vocativeaffixes apply to persons only.

This group may be usedpronominally,notablywith prefixesof a classwith 'classmeaning',suchas 'time' for Class5 and 'place'for Classl7; Óhss 5 li-mwí'finally' alí-mwi'again,also' Class17 (í)hi-lí? ' (í)hi-mbi 'elsewhere' ( lí-lí? ' | by Collins 1962:97. -mwí and-mbi arealsoclassiÍiedas 'sub-numeÍals' Stabilisationis asfor nouns: 4-kúlí nkóbàkkála? ' nka-kúlí? ' Stemswith AP4aand4b: -no,-Qya The stem -no 'this in which I amlwe are' is more often used of spaceand timet -(l)ya 'that previously mentioned,that alreadyknown' retainsthe / when the prefix consistsofvowels only: (e)ci-ya büt (u)u-lya The prefix seriesAP4a is identicalin shapewith Ap3, except for having a differentIV: (e)li-no'now' bú (i)lïmwí (seepage37).

Those which can be so segÍnentedhave been deaft with above. The vocativeaffixes apply to persons only. Most haveboth unemphaticandemphatic/restrictive stabilisation. with it' Theredoesnot appearto be a stabilisedforrn. it,s reallvme, 38 ngó-ngrwé 'he's reallythe one'. -eza: mbubwéna 'in thatvery way' nkukwéna 'to thevery sameplace' The stem-múnya canbe usedwith a variantof the pronounconsistingof the first syllableonly: ngumúnya 'the very sameperson' ncimúnya 'úe very sameúing' mbunúnya 'the very sameway' There is insuÍficientdata to give informationon stabilisationof úe variant forms.

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