Anxiety. Current Trends in Theory and Research by C. Spielberge

By C. Spielberge

-from library through writer Beeman N. Phillips, professor emeritus, collage of Texas with identify stamp on finish paper and contribution annotated.

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For the experiencer himself there may be only the unitary state of emotional stress [pp. 2 7 2 - 7 3 ] . " This interpretation is consistent with the hypothesis that psychological threats and physical dangers may differentially influence anxiety as a unitary emotional state (A-State) because life experiences cause people to develop different dispositions to respond to these types of stressors. Level of Α-Trait would not necessarily be expected to influence the intensity of A-State responses to all stressors, but only to those that persons with high Α-Trait perceive as more threatening.

PERSONALITY STATES A N D TRAITS Personality states may be regarded as temporal cross sections in the stream-of-life of a person (Thorne, 1966). A personality state exists at a given moment in time, and at a particular level of intensity. Although personality states are often transitory, they can recur when evoked by appropriate stimuli, and they may endure over time when the evoking conditions persist. Emotional reactions may be viewed as expressions of personality states. In contrast to the transitory nature of personality states, personality traits may be conceptualized as relatively enduring individual differences among people in specifiable tendencies to perceive the world in a certain way and/or in dispositions to react or behave in a specified manner with predictable regularity.

1970). 1. 37 2. 1 Selected Items from the Α-State Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory I I I I I I feel calm am tense feel upset feel nervous am jittery feel content 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 The essential qualities that are evaluated by the STAI Α-State scale involve feelings of tension, nervousness, worry, and apprehension. In developing the Α-State scale it was discovered empirically that such feelings were highly correlated with the absence of feelings of calmness, security, contentedness, and the like.

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