Art in Reproduction: Nineteenth-Century Prints after by Robert Verhoogt

By Robert Verhoogt

Artistic endeavors have constantly been reproduced: now not unavoidably cleverly, no longer inevitably cleanly, and infrequently with an eye fixed towards profit.  these curious about this crucial element of the artwork global have usually paid recognition to how those reproductions have helped to shape the reputations of artists and their works, whereas the reproductions themselves stay fairly unexamined.In the 19th century new photo recommendations, the felony improvement of copyright, and the increase of the artwork marketplace and paintings publishing ended in a large distribution of published reproductions to the overall public.  artwork in copy examines the cultural which means of inventive copy in a refreshingly new context via its attention of the way 3 nineteenth-century artists—Ary Scheffer, Jozef Isra?ls, and Lawrence Alma-Tadema—managed the copy in their personal paintings.  In addition to cautious cognizance to the standard in their revealed proofs, those artists shared a burgeoning curiosity in copyright method and a willing curiosity in profit—writing the subsequent bankruptcy during this altering creative tradition of replication, authenticity, and commodity.

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69 Although photography may have left less room for individual interpretation than the graphic techniques such as etched reproductions, the potential for this pinx it et sculpsit Hoofdstuk_1 . indd 23 • 53 13-04-2007 11:34:09 was never absent. 70 Does this mean that individual photographers can also be regarded as authors who enjoyed a special bond with their work? Painters, printmakers and publishers often thought otherwise. Naturally photographers did not agree with them and the balance of opinion eventually came down on their side.

Indd 2 • a rt in r eproduct ion 13-04-2007 11:34:04 tive graphics’ is also problematic in that it does not cover the broad range of nineteenth-century art reproduction. In 1879 the Winkler Prins Encyclopedie wrote: ‘Ultimately one gives the name of reproduction to the multiplication of a drawing etc. 8 Derived from the Latin word ‘reproductio’ it was originally employed in a legal context, to denote the presentation of witnesses and/or evidence again during a trial. It also has biological and physiological connotations.

Sometimes printmakers would produce several proofs, printed from the plate at various stages of completion. As an extension of this they also printed several ‘states’ of the print. Once the image had been completed, various states of the margin were also printed. Prints ‘before the letter’ were prints without an inscription in the margin, followed by states inscribed in the margin with terms such as pinxit and sculpsit, indicating the name of the creator/designer (painter) and executor (printmaker) respec- 42 Hoofdstuk_1 .

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