Astrophysics update 2 by John Mason

By John Mason

«Astrophysics Updates» is meant to serve the knowledge wishes astronomers and postgraduate scholars approximately components of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology which are wealthy and energetic examine spheres. Observational equipment and the newest result of astronomical learn are provided in addition to their theoretical foundations and interrelations. The contributed commissioned articles are written via best exponents in a layout that would attract expert astronomers and astrophysicists who're drawn to themes outdoor their very own particular components of study. This choice of well timed experiences can also allure the curiosity of complex novice astronomers looking scientifically rigorous insurance.

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In M8 dwarfs TiO bands are at maximum strength (K99, M99), hence the chemical temperature for M8 dwarfs are placed on the maximum TiO gas abundance curve in Fig. 3. Similarly, VO bands peak in strength at M9, which places M9 onto the maximum VO gas curve. Total pressures should be lower than ∼1 bar because otherwise the maxima of TiO and VO both coincide with the Ca-Ti condensation curve. The position on the total pressure axis is further constrained by the positions of the Cs = Cs+ and Rb = Rb+ boundaries.

1992). However, this Li-test is of limited use in cooler dwarfs because the abundance of atomic Li (gas) is reduced below the bulk Li abundance when other Li-bearing gases such as LiOH and LiCl form and consume monatomic Li. Lithium chemistry is more sensitive to Ptot than the chemistry of the other alkali elements, and several other gases (LiOH, LiH, LiF) gases are more important in addition to LiCl (Lodders 1999). Monatomic Li is the dominant Li-bearing gas down to 1520 K (at 1 bar) where LiCl becomes the major Li-bearing gas (Fig.

For example, Prinn & Barshay (1977) calculated a quench level of 1100 K for CO on Jupiter where hchem (CO) ∼25 km versus H ∼ 220 km. 75 eV). The activation energy factors for destruction of N2 (Ea /R = 81, 515) and HCN (Ea /R = 70, 456) are also much larger than T in the atmospheres of Jovian planets and sub-stellar mass objects. Thus, HCN and N2 are also expected to be quenched at high temperature with the exact temperature depending upon the considerations above. In contrast, several other species such as monatomic Cs and FeH are unquenchable in the atmospheres of gas giant planets and sub-stellar mass objects because the activation energy factors are effectively zero.

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