At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments by Dan Green

By Dan Green

Too usually descriptions of detectors specialize in the "what" and never the "why". This quantity goals to explain how the necessities of the physics on the huge Hadron Collider (LHC) outline the detector atmosphere. In flip, the detector offerings are made to undertake to that atmosphere. The target of LHC physics is to discover the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. as a result of the minuscule cross-sections which have to be explored, 0.1 facebook, the LHC must offer a hundred fb-1/yr, or a right away luminosity of 1034 / (cm2 sec). With a host crossing period of 25 nsec, well suited to detector speeds, there'll be 25 occasions occupying each one bunch crossing. hence the physics calls for quick, finely segmented, low noise and radiation resistant detectors which offer redundant measurements of the infrequently produced electrons and muons. to accomplish these pursuits, new flooring was once damaged in developing the A Toroidal LHC gear (ATLAS) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detectors within the vertex detectors, monitoring structures, calorimetry, powerful magnets, muon structures, entrance finish electronics, set off platforms, and within the facts acquisition equipment used.

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Extra info for At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments

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However, the need to cover angles as small as |y| = 5 arose from the requirement that the generic detector measure most of the inclusive inelastic pions and measure the forward jets from the vector boson fusion process. This requirement places a large radiation burden on the forward calorimetry. 0. At |y| = 4 the average pion energy is 22 GeV. Approximately 77 W of power is deposited by secondary particles that heat the forward calorimetry. The luminosity can be measured in the forward calorimeter with a thermometer!

Details of the installation procedure needed to be defined at an early stage of the project. Originally, a staged installation was foreseen in which only the inner two layers were present during a low luminosity phase of the LHC. 4 cm layer removed. The staging scenario eventually became obsolete as the LHC startup slipped and the full three-layer detector was installed in 2008. 5in — At the Leading Edge ... 48 b866-ch02 W. Erdmann Advances in sensor material engineering and the availability of veryradiation-hard deep submicron CMOS technology have led to a detector that will be able to withstand significantly higher doses than anticipated at the time of the TDR.

5in — At the Leading Edge ... How Physics Defines the LHC Environment and Detectors b866-ch01 27 The ECAL shower development itself is very rapid, so that the speed of data collection is defined by the readout. It has been assumed to have a resolving time of less than one bunch crossing, similar to the speed already quoted for the silicon tracking and vertex devices. 5 sampling and a depth of 20 t, there would be 40 samples ganged together. 2 cm, each sample would have about 9 pF of source capacity if the sampling gap is 1 mm, assuming a unity gain detector.

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