Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the by Stearns Morse

By Stearns Morse

A booklet on part diagrams in igneous petrology, with the early components of the chapters being simple and the later components being complex. subject matters diversity from easy platforms reminiscent of Anorthite-Albite to extra complicated fabric reminiscent of an creation to Schreinemakers' ideas.

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Additional info for Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology

Example text

Melts, since they lie by our definition near the freezing point, are those liquids whose structure is most ordered, and about whose structure we are most concerned. Melts and crystals are both referred to as condensed phases, in contrast to the vapor state. e. heated above their eqUilibrium with crystals) they pass into liquids in the more general sense, and finally pass into the vapor (or gaseous) state. A vapor has the unique property of filling Water: A Familiar but Bad Example 23 its container, hence is in principle easier to define than a liquid.

The Phase Rule and Variance 35 The Phase Rule and Variance Statements about components, phases, and variables may be marshalled into a formula known as the phase rule which gives the number of additional statements which must be made to define the system completely. It can be shown that, in a system at equilibrium, the number of variables which can be independently varied (without disturbing the equilibrium) is equal to the number of components in the system, plus two. The reasoning goes briefly like this.

Liquid water has a very low viscosity, resulting in hydrodynamic properties familiar to all. Silicate liquids, on the other hand, are very viscous; the melts used in glassmaking are more fluid than most silicate liquids, and many melts, for example feldspar liquids, cannot be poured because they are so viscous. Natural basalt lava may flow rather freely, of course, as lExtraterrestrial petrology is excluded from this remark. ISee Ubbelohde (1965, p. 19-24) for discussion. 24 Chapter 3 Crystals and Melts motion pictures of Kilauea and other eruptions show, but much of the hydrodynamic behavior of erupting lava is determined by small quantities of water vapor and other volatiles which diminish viscosity.

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