By Gisela Gerdes
This ebook bargains with microbial mats, stromatolites and covered grains. contemporary and historic stromatolitic ecosystems are defined in peritidal environments, together with siliciclastic, carbonaceous and evaporite-dominated back-barrier structures. quite a few appropriate different types have been wonderful: - mat-forming microbiota - environmental stipulations controlling mat forms and lithology - bioturbation and grazing. contemporary and historic microbial mat platforms convey a latitudinal association that are used for paleoclimatological and paleogeographical reconstructions. This ebook can be of designated curiosity to sedimentologists, coastal engineers, ecologists, zoologists, salt plant engineers and marine scientists, in addition to to scholars drawn to those fields.
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Extra info for Biolaminated deposits
C) F a i n t l y b i o l a m i n a t e d sulfate deposits. Scale is 1 mm. D) G y p s u m deposits, p r o t r u d i n g above the sediment surface. Pupae of the brine fly Ephydra sp. are a t t a c h e d under the crust. Scale is 2 cm. E) I n t r a s e d i m e n t a r y g y p s u m nodule, coated by a m o n o l a y e r e d microbial mat. Scale is 1 mm. Figs. B, C, E from thin sections. 42 Synechocyst~s and Synechococcus). Each lamina type is vertically repeated several times. Up to I0 living cyanobacteria strata Gloeothece, (mainly thus form which harbor a multitude of oxyphotobacteria bacteria), anoxyphotobacteria flexus), sulfate- and (e.
4. do not p e r m i t ments is to The factors "hard ground" living the c o n t i n u e d ally calcified soft-bodied ooids colonization, which decomposition, This process and oncoids. brine to e m p h a s i z e appears production may bring of excess protoplasm filled may be analoand calculi to with external carbonate the c o n s p i c u o u s matrix the coating growth of calcareous material result, bubbles layers m a y be due again a c c e l e r a t e s of alka- As a stones i. to disturbances. in the surrounding (see for example 8).
Eh-values of up to -400 mV (Fig. 12C section 2) were measured. 2. 5 were o b s e r v e d by E. ments (Holtkamp, saturated 1985). e x t r e m e l y low values of pH H O L T K A M P in the black anaerobic the h i g h e r the b i o l o g i c a l activity is. These organisms rich sediments w h i c h are c o n s e q u e n t l y c o l o n i z e d by of sulfate as an e l e c t r o n donor. seepage seawater and chemoorgano- tration (see Fig. with The sulfate is supplied by c o r r e l a t e s in its c o n c e n t r a t i o n well topographic moisture gradient with the the the 3).