By Seth J Karp; James Morris; Stanley Zaslau
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Extra resources for Blueprints surgery
Dichloroacetate (DCA) is an analogue of acetic acid in which 2 of the 3 hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have been replaced by chlorine atoms. DCA (CHCl 2 COOH) stimulates the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme (PDH) complex. PDH catalyses the irreversible oxidation of pyruvate, the product of glycolysis, to acetyl coenzyme A and carbon dioxide. Reducing equivalents in the form of NADH, which enter complex I of the ETC are also generated. Acetyl coenzyme A then is condensed with oxaloacetate to form citrate, the first step in the citric acid cycle.
Ubiquinones are components of all cell membranes, including mitochondrial membranes. Multiple orthomolecules are required for its biosynthesis. Large amounts of CoQ10 are found in the mitochondrial inner membrane where it acts as a mobile electron carrier. Specifically, CoQ10 shuttles electrons from ETC complex I to complex III and from complex II to complex III. In addition, CoQ10 absorbs free radicals, which are probably generated to the greatest extent at the level of complex I, thereby acting as an antioxidant and preventing propagation of lipid peroxidation.
Most of the calcium absorbed in the upper intestine, where the pH is low due to stomach acid (HCl) entering the intestine. Vitamin D stimulates intestinal calcium absorption. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) also promotes calcium absorption directly, by increasing Ca2+ reabsorption in the kidneys, and indirectly, by stimulating the activation of vitamin D. When atoms interact together, their valence orbitals overlap to form bonds between the atoms. Electronegativity plays an important role in determining the properties of bonds between atoms of the same element in a solid (electronegativity is zero).