By Rebecca M. Jordan-Young
Male and female brains are diversified, due to hormones coursing throughout the mind ahead of delivery. That's taught as truth in psychology textbooks, educational journals, and bestselling books. And those hardwired variations clarify every little thing from sexual orientation to gender identification, to why there aren't extra girls physicists or extra stay-at-home dads.
In this compelling publication, Rebecca Jordan-Young takes at the proof that intercourse adjustments are hardwired into the mind. studying nearly all released study that helps the claims of "human mind association theory," Jordan-Young finds how frequently those experiences fail the criteria of technology. no matter if cautious researchers indicate the bounds in their personal experiences, different researchers and reporters can simply forget about them simply because mind association thought simply sounds so correct. but when a sequence of methodological weaknesses, questionable assumptions, inconsistent definitions, and large gaps among ambiguous findings and grand conclusions have collected over the years, then technological know-how isn't clinical at all.
Elegantly written, this booklet argues passionately that the research of gender variations merits way more rigorous, biologically subtle technology. "The facts for hormonal intercourse differentiation of the human mind larger resembles a hodge-podge pile than a pretty good structure...Once we now have cleared the rubble, we will start to construct more recent, extra medical tales approximately human development."
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Additional resources for Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences
Scientists increasingly suggested that hormones should be thought of as “catalysts” that “bring latent mating behavior to expression” (Young, Goy, and Phoenix 1965, 179). That is, the hormones themselves, although powerful and sometimes capable of inducing sudden and dramatic behavioral changes, did not automatically determine the type of behavior that would be induced, or the frequency or timing of such behavior. For example, scientists were not able to predict the lag time between testosterone injection and mounting behavior in different male animals, and could not understand why castration did not immediately stop mounting behavior in males, whereas castrated females seemed to immediately lose interest in sex.
Being male or female is not simply determined at one moment for any individual organism, but is the result of a multistep process. First, at conception the X chromosome from the egg is joined by a sex chromosome from the sperm, either a Y chromosome (yielding an XY genotype, which is the typical male pattern) or another X chromosome (yielding an XX genotype, the typical female pattern). 6 The ﬁrst stage of differentiation of these sex-neutral structures is under control of the sex chromosomes, causing the “bipotential” gonads to become either testes (in XY fetuses) or ovaries (in XX fetuses).
Likewise, I have chosen to retain the term sex-typed interests for a core domain of psychology that some scientists link to brain organization theory. I keep the term largely because I found it created too much confusion to jump back and forth between the term common in the studies and the term I preferred (gendered interests). There will probably be other times when I am describing the positions and theories of brain organization researchers where the usage I describe here may seem to falter. But this does reﬂect my fundamental intentions in usage for the terms throughout this book.