By Michael Zimmermann
This quantity stories the proof that, at specific moments of their heritage and in convinced elements in their doctrines, the traditions of Buddhism, like different non secular traditions, have actively or passively promoted - and will proceed to advertise - violent modes of habit or structural violence. The articles during this quantity conceal a huge spectrum of the Buddhist international in time period of areas and sessions. They take care of features of violence beginning in India earlier than the typical period and varying to the help of eastern militarism by way of Buddhist leaders some distance into the 20 th century.
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The Buddha), who is endowed with great compassion. " After hearing these words, the buffalo feels disgust towards its own body and fasts to death. After that the animal is reborn as a god in heaven, as foretold by the Buddha. Soon after his rebirth the former animal descends to earth in order to receive instructions from him. He thereupon attains a spiritual breakthrough, namely, a vision of the Four discarded outright. The fact that Gangika was praised for the way in which he acted, however, renders Filliozat's hypothesis rather improbable.
39 Martin Delhey In view of this obviously quite positive attitude towards religious suicide, it seems to be impossible that the Sarvastivadins regarded ' suicide as being intrinsically wrong from the standpoint of morality, since the arhat is depicted as a man who has become virtually incapable of committing deeds that are morally wrong. Significantly, the Sarvastivadins were of the opinion that the killing of living beings, or even any harmful or beneficial act, derives its character of being karmically relevant from being directed towards other living beings.
32 According to Keown, the Buddha's assurance that Vakkali's death will have no bad consequences does not imply that his suicide is condoned or exonerated. See 35 Martin Delhey However, a third recension of this sermon, which can be found in the Chinese *Ekottarikagama, 33 differs considerably. According to this version, Vakkali is not in a state of release while committing suicide; on the contrary, after inflicting on himself the lethal wound, he comes to the conclusion that he has acted wrongly and that he will suffer bad consequences as a result.