By the Sword and the Cross: The Historical Evolution of the by Charles A. Truxillo

By Charles A. Truxillo

A concise evaluation of Spanish the United States in the course of the colonial period (1492-1825), this research makes an attempt a synthesis of Iberian and Latin American old narratives in the context of global background. Spanish civilization was once transferred to the Americas as Spain imposed its medieval Catholic tradition upon the Americas, effectively changing the elite cultures of the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas. Iberian tradition turned indigenous in terms of cross-culturalization, and Creole elites chanced on independence inevitable as soon as their lifestyle turned outlined through American conditions.

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Extra info for By the Sword and the Cross: The Historical Evolution of the Catholic World Monarchy in Spain and the New World, 1492-1825 (Contributions to the Study of World History)

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The rising was crushed by Don Juan of Austria. Afterwards, the expulsion of the moriscos was inevitable; it occurred in 1609-1614. Coming more than a century after the earlier expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal (1492-1494), that of the moriscos, in effect, brought to closure the Iberian peninsula's ancient 36 The Sword and the Cross connection with Semitic cultures—Phoenicians, Carthagenians, Jews, and Arabs (Hess 1978). The single-mindedness of the Reconquista would inspire the Castilians to assume a triple responsibility in the sixteenth century: (1) The Spanish crusade against Islam would continue in North Africa and in the Mediterranean; (2) Protestantism and Ottoman imperialism, together with the Habsburg connection, involved Spain in the affairs of northern and central Europe, especially as the champion of the Counter-Reformation (1542-1648); (3) Finally, the Spanish Monarchy's greatest enterprise was the conquest of the Indies and the subsequent foundation of Spanish America.

Visigothic kings exercised full patronage over the Catholic Church, appointing bishops and calling church councils; their model was Constantine. The Gothic monarchs, in turn, were exemplars to future Spanish rulers, especially those of the Bourbon Dynasty (17001808) (Brading 1991). Unfortunately, the Visigothic kingdom was unable to achieve stability because succession to the throne was elective and often contested by rival lineages. Succession by contest was typical of many nomadic and tribal peoples, including the later Mongols of Chingiz Khan (Hodgson 1974).

However, the kingdom's ambitions were divided between the conquest of Valencia and dynastic ambitions in southwestern France. Further west, Navarre was landlocked and after the death of Sancho the Great (1035), father of the Castilian and Aragonese royal lines, largely excluded from the great campaigns of the Reconquista. On the Atlantic fringe, Portugal, first as a Leonese vassal, then as an independent kingdom, led the west wing of the great offensive against Spanish Islam. The Portuguese Reconquista culminated in the capture of Lisbon in 1147.

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