Caesar and Christ: The Story of Civilization Vol 3 by Will Durant

By Will Durant

CAESAR AND CHRIST, quantity 3 of the tale OF CIVILIZATION, depicts the increase of Romae from a crossroads city to an empire. The world's first republic, Rome unfold its civilization over the Mediterranean and Western Europe. Its lengthy, sluggish crumbling and ultimate cave in plunged Europe into darkness and chaos.

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Hardships of transportation through mountains and forests collaborated with the jealous pugnacity of men, here as in Greece, to form independent city-states, seldom united against external foes; each cherished its separate security, often stood aside while others were attacked, and, one after another, succumbed to Rome. C. † As in the case of Rome, the government of the Etruscan cities began as a monarchy, became an oligarchy of “first families,” and gradually gave over to an assembly of propertied citizens the right of choosing the annual magistrates.

However much Rome learned from her neighbors, she remained, in all the basic features of life, distinctively herself. Nothing in Etruscan history quite suggests the Roman character, the grave self-discipline, the cruelty and courage, the patriotism and stoic devotion that patiently conquered, and then patiently ruled, the Mediterranean states. Now Rome was free, and the stage was cleared for the incomparable drama of the grandeur and decline of paganism in the ancient world. C. C. ): Foundation of Carthage 558: Carthage conquers western Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, etc.

Now he rode with Collatinus to the capital, told Lucretia’s story to the Senate, and persuaded it to banish all the royal family. The King had meanwhile left the army and hurried to Rome; Brutus, apprised of this, rode out to the army, told Lucretia’s story again, and won the soldiers’ support. 45 * An assembly of the citizen-soldiers was now convened; and instead of a king chosen for life it elected two consuls,† with equal and rival powers, to rule for a year. These first consuls, says the tradition, were Brutus and Collatinus; but Collatinus resigned, and was replaced by Publius Valerius, who won the name Publicola—“friend of the people”—by putting through the Assembly several laws that remained basic in Rome: that any man who should try to make himself king might be killed without trial; that any attempt to take a public office without the people’s consent should be punishable with death; and that any citizen condemned by a magistrate to death or flogging should have the right of appeal to the Assembly.

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