By WALCOTT C.D.,
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Extra info for Cambrian geology and paleontology. I. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 53-LXXVIII
N. BOUSIAS ET AL. 1. Introduction Columns are normally the weak links in existing concrete buildings in seismic regions, especially if vertical bars are insufficiently lap-spliced at floor level. To extend the life of these buildings, such column deficiencies should normally be corrected. This paper describes test results on columns with or without lap splices, retrofitted via either wrapping of the plastic hinge region with CFRP sheets, or concrete jacketing of the entire column. Test results supplement those of other experimental campaigns in the literature, in order to develop simple rules and analytical tools for calculation of the effect of concrete or FRP jackets on: (a) yield strength, (b) yield deflection and the associated secant-to-yielding stiffness; and (c) ultimate deflection in cyclic loading, in columns with or without lap splicing at the base.
The test results in Table 1 for R-type columns show that in FRP-retrofitted columns with straight ribbed bars, five CFRP layers are more effective than two layers; nonetheless, the improvement in effectiveness is not commensurate to the number of FRP layers. Test results also suggest that there is a limit to the improvement due to FRP wrapping: if the lapping of straight ribbed bars is as short as 15 bar-diameters, its adverse effects on force capacity and energy dissipation cannot be fully removed by FRP wrapping.
I say it is not techne but money that will save the City. Ali Ihsan Bey, a banker and one of my customers, proposed a much simpler and not so expensive solution. If you start making technical judgments about which building should stay and which buildings should not stay, our lawyers will trip you up in almost all cases. Any action to raze and rebuild may take years. Ali Ihsan Bey has a workable plan. First, the engineers identify the vulnerable buildings. This does not result in a great deal of hassle because the owners are given the option to rebuild or not to rebuild.