Cambridge Ancient History. Rome & the Mediterranean to 133 by A. E. Astin

By A. E. Astin

Quantity VIII covers the interval from instantly earlier than the second one Punic struggle to 133 B.C., the time whilst Rome bought potent political mastery of the Mediterranean lands. From the Carthaginians in Spain, the second one Punic struggle, and the 1st Roman involvement around the Adriatic, the improvement of Roman strength is traced in the course of the conquests in Cisalpine Gaul, Spain and Africa within the west and during the conflicts within the east with Macedonia, the Seleucid empire, and at last the Greeks. Interspersed with those issues are chapters at the Seleucids and their competitors, the Greeks of Bactria and India, the interior political lifetime of Rome, and advancements in Rome's relationships together with her allies and friends in Italy. concluding chapters discover the interactions, either highbrow and fabric, among the Roman and Italian culture and the Greek international.

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17 Polyb. 6. : (H 19); cf. Brink and Walbank 19(4, 117-18: (B 2), and VC'albank 1957-79, 1734: (B 38). Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 28 THE CARTHAGINIANS IN SPAIN Hamilcar's death by a punitive expedition against the Orissi which took him to the upper Guadiana. The extension of his control enabled him ultimately, it is said (Diod. Sic. 12), to increase his forces to 60,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry and 200 elephants, but he also strengthened his position by diplomacy.

Whatever be thought of Hannibal's part in provoking the episode, the factor which led the Saguntines to ask for Roman arbitration was clearly a quarrel with a neighbouring tribe which, if not settled quickly, might, so they feared, have serious consequences. Polybius dates this episode 'a short time before' {fxiKpols e/xTrpoodev 27 Polyb. 5-8. Livy's account (xxi. 8-16), though probably deriving from the same source as Polybius, is confused and has misunderstood the movements of the armies. 3 18: (B }8).

However, although the Ebro treaty contained no reference to southern Spain, Hasdrubal may have been led to believe that the Romans had no intention of interfering there (see above pp. 29—30). On the other hand, Hannibal knew very well that Saguntum was an ally of Rome and that any threat to it would involve Rome's concern. He therefore reported to Carthage that the Saguntines trusting in their Roman alliance had attacked a tribe under Punic protection, and he sought instructions. ), and was apparently given a free hand.

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