Caving by Steve Boga

By Steve Boga

A complete consultant to navigating rock and mineral formations appropriately.

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Sample text

Floyd said he was hungry, so Homer called up for food and then began the agonizingly slow process of digging out the dirt and rocks that covered Floyd to the shoulders. When the food came, Homer had to feed his brother like Page 27 a baby, which only made the situation seem more dire. After Floyd had consumed nine sausage sandwiches and a pint of coffee, Homer returned to digging, laboriously filling a syrup can and passing it up to a chain of helpers for disposal. Toiling through the night, he succeeded in uncovering his brother's torso and upper arms.

By the 1870s Adelsberg was drawing eight thousand tourists a year, and a fashionable hotel had been built nearby to house and feed the wealthiest of them. In America, caves were valued more for their economic than their aesthetic worth. For thousands of years, Native Americans in Page 23 the Kentucky karst belt, the most extensive cave region on the continent, had mined gypsum, which they used in ceremonial paints. By the late eighteenth century, settlers on the rugged western frontier were extracting saltpeter from caves.

The friction created by water flowing through air drags air along above the surface of the water, a process called entrainment. The result is low-level air movement into the cave passage. But if air is moving in, it also must be moving out at higher levels. In cases of rapid flooding, the incoming water displaces air, causing strong, outward-flowing air. The greater the amount of air exchange between a cave and the outside, the greater the variations in temperature and humidity within the cave.

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