Chemical Pathways of Metabolism

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System, the com­ plete oxidation of glucose to CO 2 and H2O leads to the formation of thirtytwo molecules of ATP from ADP. The eleven constituent enzymes of the glycolytic system fall into the following categories: dehydrogenases (2); phosphokinases (4); isomerases (4); and aldolase (1). The ratio of the number of dehydrogenases to the total number of enzymes is 2:11 in the glycolytic cycle and 5:12 in the citric-acid cycle. D. with its substrate (3-p-triose), DPN, and Pi may be represented as follows: 3-p-triose + ESH + D P N + 3-p-glyceryl-SE + Pi S-p-glyceryl-SE + D P N H 1,3-pp-gly cerate + ESH (29) (30) where ESH represents some enzyme-linked SH group believed to be glutaprinciple the reaction mechanism resembles that for the a-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase except that lipoic acid or CoA is re­ placed by another SH compound.

Arch. Biochem. 23, 141 (1949). 7 Fager, E. , Arch. Biochem. 41, 383 (1952). 8 Newcomb, E. , and Stumpf, P. , Phosphorus Metabolism 2, 291 (1952). ^-^^ At the risk of appearing anthropomorphic, one might say that when particular en­ zymes are housed together the chances are good that they work together. The basic problem of multienzyme metabolic sequences may be put in the following form. The cell carries out a considerable number of meta­ bolic sequences ranging in complexity from the synthesis of a protein or a steroid, on the one hand, to a relatively simpler process, such as trans­ methylation, on the other.

And Mayer, J. , Arch. Biochem. 14, 297 (1947). " HiU, A. v . , Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 137B, 4Ó (1950). w Szent-Györgyi, A. , Enzymologia 14, 177 (1950). w HiU, T. , and Morales, M. , Arch. Biochem. and Biophys. 37, 425 (1952). CHAPTER 2 Enzymes in Metabolic Sequences D A V I D E. G R E E N Institute for Enzyme Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin I. Introduction · II. Cyclophorase-Mitochondrial System 1. Some General Properties of the System 2. Citric-Acid Cycle 3. Electron Transfer System 4.

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