Church Reform in 18th Century Italy: The Synod of Pistoia, by Charles A. Bolton

By Charles A. Bolton

The whole heritage of J ansenism will most likely by no means be written simply because to put in writing it can contain the research of a stream that grew and adjusted regularly for greater than 200 years and located a unique expression in lots of international locations, in particular France, Holland, and Italy. in fact the standard Frenchman of any schooling could imagine that he knew whatever approximately Jansenism. For him, and for lots of Englishmen of a few French tradition, Jansenism is a heresy approximately grace and predestination that stumbled on expression within the Augustinus of Cornelius Janssens or Jansenius, Bishop of Ypres and at one time professor within the collage of Louvain. 1 The theological place of J ansenius was once followed via his good friend, Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, generally called the Abbe de S. Cyran, a director of the monas tery of Port Royal des Champs. via its kin with S. Cyran and with Antoine Arnauld, brother of Angelique Arnauld, Abbess of Port Royal, the monastery entered into the theological controversies of the time, particularly after Arnauld's serious ethical paintings - De fa Frl quente Communion. 2 yet to the standard Frenchman, Port Royal, along with its quarrels approximately predestination, is mainly memorable for its nice literary names, Pascal, Racine, Boileau, and to a point l. a. Fontaine and Mme de Sevigne. What Jansenism relatively stood for and what turned of its perfect after the brutal demolition of Port Royal in 1709 by means of Louis XIV is yet little recognized.

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II). Both of these Bishops were opposed to Unigenitus and to papal dictates. The different titles of the tracts on Church and State show clearly the ideas they defend: "The Principles that concern the essence, distinction, and limits of the two powers, spiritual and temporal" (vol. III) - "Memorandum on the freedom of the Gallican Church discovered among the papers of the Dauphin and composed by his order" (vol. III). - "Rules of obedience for the common people in conflicts between the secular power and the ecclesiastical authority" (vol.

Augustine, St. Fulgentius, and St. Prosper,84 praises the Catechisme historique et dogmatique sur les contestations qui agitent maintenant l' Eglise of J. B. " 85 Fourquevaux's history, beginning in 1540, describes the controversies on grace during more than two hundred years, and this account was so popular with the J ansenists that it was reprinted eight times in the space of twenty years. 86 Ricci also makes mention of Boursier's defence of the four Appellant Bishops against Unigenitus,87 all the works of Arnauld 88 and of J ansenius and Cardinal Noris.

Note the ideal of Reunion. , 68-69. , 56-57. , 58. RICCI AS BISHOP OF PISTOIA AND PRATO 29 tracts, the Raccolta di opuscoli interessanti la Religione, published at his expense from 1783 to 1788, up to which date seventeen volumes had been published. There are more than seventy tracts, most of them translations from the French. ; some writings come from the Church of Utrecht where many French J ansenists such as the Abbe de Bellegarde and Nicholas Ie Gros had taken refuge; a certain number illustrate later tendencies in France, and it may be said that most of the tracts are drawn from the multitude of Jansenist polemical writings during the eighteenth century in France.

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