Concepts of Nuclear Physics by Bernard L. Cohen

By Bernard L. Cohen

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If the lifetime of a given species is T, the number of nuclei found at a time t after the explosion is N(t, T) = Noexp( -tiT). The observat ion of young supernova remnants, for instance, can reveal significant line emission from radioactive nuclei. Recently, Iyudin et al. (1998) have found 44Ti line emission from the so-called Vela Jr. supernova remnant. 44Ti has an efolding lifetime of only 89 yr, so the remnant should be very young. This line has also been detected in the '" 300-yr old Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (Iyudin et al.

The dominant 7r-producing channels in hadronic interactions are (Eth '" m 7r c 2 ): p+p p+p pp+ -7 -7 -7 P + p + a7r° + b(7r+ + 7r-) p+n+7r++a7r°+b(7r++7r-) n+n+27r++a7r°=b(7r++7r-)P+ (50) (51) (52) where a and bare positive integers. Neutral pions decay into gamma rays with a proper lifetime of only 9 x 10- 17 s. The gamma-ray emissivity generated through such decays at a source with a proton spectrum Ip(Ep) = (c/47r)Np(Ep) given by a power law: Ip(Ep) = KE;[' (53) lS (54) where Emill(E ) = E 7r 'j 2 4 + m4E' c 'j 7r 'Y (55) 33 Chapter 2 Fundamentals of gamma-ray astrophysics and (56) Here, dO";r (E;r, Ep)/dE;r is the differential cross section for the production of 7r°-mesons of energy E;r by a proton of energy E p in a p - p collision.

W. 1968, Phys. Rev. Lett. W. A. D. A. 1971, ApJ 164, 529 Svensson, R. ,et al. F. 1998, ApJ 493, 826 CHAPTER 3 GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES Isabelle A. fr Abstract The EGRET telescope has detected over 200 ')'-ray sources above 100 MeV, but many remain unidentified because of their poor localization or their faintness at lower energies. Multi-wavelength searches have proved successful at finding interesting blazar and pulsar counterparts at high latitudes, but rarely in the Galactic plane because of confusion.

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