Contemporary Latin America: Development and Democracy beyond by Francisco Panizza

By Francisco Panizza

Latin the USA has replaced dramatically over the last few years. whereas the Nineties have been ruled by way of the political orthodoxy of the Washington Consensus and the political uniformity of centre correct governments the 1st decade of the recent century has visible the emergence of a plurality of monetary and political choices. In an summary of the heritage of the quarter during the last twenty-five years this publication strains the highbrow and political origins of the Washington Consensus, assesses its effect on democracy and monetary improvement and discusses no matter if the emergence of quite a few left-wing governments within the zone represents a transparent holiday with the politics and guidelines of the Washington Consensus. truly written and conscientiously argued the publication could be of curiosity to lecturers, scholars of Latin American politics and anyone attracted to realizing modern Latin America..

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But these interpretations of the origins and nature of the crisis soon became politically untenable, as it became evid­ ent that the social dislocations produced by hyperinflation and economic recession could not be materially overcome or symbolically repaired by the policies and discourses of ISI. Instead, the crisis made possible the emergence of new interpretative frameworks that sought to make sense of it, and to advance solutions for the reconstruction of social order. For the organic intellectuals (Gramsci 1971) of the free market reformation, the threat that hyperinflation posed to the political order became part of a broader narrative that linked politics and economics to a more general crisis of social order.

Power is an asymmetrical relation in which the dominant actor can secure the compliance of the dominated one not just by force but also through its ability to set the agenda and manipulate preferences (Lukes 2005). As is shown in the next sections, the IFIs were highly influential in setting the agenda of economic reform in Latin America in the late 32 1980s and early 1990s. It could also be argued that through their superior technical knowledge and other forms of influence, the IFIs shaped the preferences of borrowing countries to extract consent for policies that were not necessarily in those countries’ best interests.

615). If the effects of structural adjustment on economic growth and its impact on the poor were taken into con­ sideration, it became even more difficult to find agreed criteria between defenders and critics of the Fund’s policies. In a study on the effects of the IMF programmes in eighteen Latin American countries, Manuel Pastor (1987) found that IMF policies had improved the balance of payments, had not improved the current accounts, and had reduced labour shares in real incomes. Pastor also found that IMF programmes had a negative effect on income distribution.

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