By Sukumar Biswas (auth.)
In the early years of the 20th century, Victor Hess of Germany flew tools in balloons and so came across in 1912 that an extra-~errestial radiation of unknown foundation is incident in the world with a virtually consistent depth invariably. those penetrating non sun radiations that have been referred to as Cosmic Rays by way of Millikan, united states, opened the recent frontier of area physics and lots of top scientists have been drawn to it. on the finish of worldwide warfare II a couple of house autos, e.g. stratospheric balloons, rockets and satellites have been constructed. In 1950 and onwards, those cars enabled surprising advances in area physics and house astrophysics. New horizons have been opened within the explorations of cosmic rays, the earth's magnetosphere, the solar and the heliosphere, the moon and the planets. utilizing space-borne tools, intriguing discoveries have been made up of stars, and galaxies within the infra-red, extremely violet, x-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. during this textual content publication those interesting new findings are provided intensive and on a degree appropriate for senior undergraduate and graduate scholars, study scientists and scientists of different disciplines. even supposing there are a number of very good books and monographs on varied features, each one of these care for particular parts. during this textual content e-book the findings of area physics and astrophysics are awarded in an built-in demeanour with right introductions to the basic facets, and those are supplemented by means of suitable floor dependent observations.
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Extra resources for Cosmic Perspectives in Space Physics
Prior to the satellite borne experiments, rocket borne magnetometers were flown in the 1950's and 60's to about 120 km. Some of these flights were made near the equator and observed an abrupt change in the magnetic field at an altitude of 100 km leading to the discovery of an equatorial electrojet. f"V The early satellites, Sputnik-III, Lunik-I and II of the USSR and Pioneer-I and V and Explorer-VI of the USA flown in 1958-59 carried magnetometers in space and gave information on the geomagnetic field far away from the earth.
4 Problems on Chapter 1 1. Estimate the minimum altitude at which space astronomy detectors are to be flown to record cosmic X-rays of (i) 1-2 keY and (ii) 20-50 keY, with 50% attenuation in the earth's atmosphere. Explain what type of space vehicles - rockets, balloons, etc. are suitable for the measurements of (i) and (ii), and why? 2. Explain the principles and operations of zero pressure balloon flights for space physics experiments. What are the critical requirements of the plastic films used for these balloons?
3: Results from the IMP-l magnetic field experiment field of 5, b = 10- 5 Gauss) signifies that the spacecraft is sampling the interplanetary field. Each orbit of the spacecraft, IMP-I, thus provided two values of boundary crossings(2). 3. These results yield the shape of the boundaries of the shock front and the magnetopause and their locations. 3 The Structure of the Magnetosphere The magnetosphere of the earth is defined as the region of near earth space where the magnetic field of the earth plays the dominant role in the physical processes occurring there.