Costa Rica by Francis Giguere, Yves Seguin

By Francis Giguere, Yves Seguin

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L’État entrepreneur voit alors son déficit passer de 164 millions en 1970 à plus d’un milliard en 1978. Parallèlement, la paix dans la région est loin d’être une chose assurée. Les guerres civiles dans les pays voisins du Costa Rica, le Nicaragua, le Guatemala et le Salvador, déstabilisent le commerce interrégional. Les réfugiés affluent, et certaines factions se permettent d’utiliser le territoire costaricien pour s’entraîner ou s’approvisionner. L’intervention américaine dans les conflits de la région, surtout sous la présidence de Ronald Reagan, soulève l’ire de la population.

23 1949: fondation de la Seconde République toujours existante. Droit de vote aux femmes et aux Noirs. 1962: le Costa Rica devient membre du Marché commun de l’Amérique centrale. Début de la domination des industries costariciennes par les capitaux étrangers. 1974: élection de Daniel Oduber. Croissance de l’État entrepreneur. 1979-1986: la révolution sandiniste au Nicaragua, les guerres civiles au Salvador et au Guatemala ainsi que l’intervention des Américains sous Ronald Reagan créent une situation de crise au Costa Rica.

Ces cultures très rentables auraient sans doute pu faire la prospérité de la région. Mais voilà, il fallait pouvoir exporter les récoltes, ce qui est devenu impossible en 1665, lorsque l’Espagne a frappé d’interdit tous les ports de la côte dans l’espoir d’endiguer le développement d’une autre industrie, celle de la piraterie. La métropole obtint ainsi exactement le contraire de ce qu’elle avait désiré puisque, en l’absence de trafics licites, les boucaniers se sont multipliés, tout comme les contrebandiers.

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