Desert Sediments: Ancient and Modern (Geological Society by L. E. Frostick, I. Reid

By L. E. Frostick, I. Reid

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Example text

P A W R borehole records (Aube11983; Jones 1986) suggest that buried gravels extend to depths of up to 285 m in some places, although these gravels also include the continental alluvial sediments of the Mio-Pliocene Upper Fars Group. This fan system slopes gently towards the S and SE with gradients decreasing from c. 0030 m m - ~ W of Barzaman (Fig. 3) to only c. 0018 m m - 1 in the SE, near the confluence of the Wadis Andam and Matam. Fan System H forms a narrower, more recent channel system confined to the northerly, proximal parts of the present Wadi Andam piedmont zone (Fig.

This approach requires the field determination of maximum particle sizes, in order to provide a measure of bed roughness, former channel gradients, and former flow widths. The main assumptions of this critical shear stress approach are the former existence of steady uniform flow; the validity of the s h e a r stress model itself; a known effect of packing and imbrication on the Shields coefficient; the absence of local bedforms or coarse clast concentrations; and the availability of all particle sizes for transport by competent Newtonian fluid flows (eg see Costa 1984).

The onset of aridity was probably very rapid (Neev & Emery 1967; Begin et al. 1974; Danin et al. 1982; Gerson 1982a). The lower terrace group contains mostly fluviatile sediments exhibiting features consistent with overall net incision, and rather infrequent large floods depositing coarse gravel. Most of the Holocene deposits indicate events of a similar nature to those in Pleistocene deposits. However, in the latter there is a distinct alternation between beds of differing sedimentary texture, with abrupt transitions between units.

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