By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández
Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled method of storing power that allows you to improve the volume of electrical cost produced. some time past, using inexpensive fabrication procedures equivalent to complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been saved for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels less than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for communique units, and the craze of system-on-chip know-how, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF purposes keeps to upward push, it really is crucial that passive units equivalent to varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a severe layout factor.
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Extra resources for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications
22. References ´ s. IEEE Andreani, P. and Mattison, S. (2000) On the use of MOS varactors in RF VCO Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 35(6), 905–910. Andreani, P. and Mattison, S. 8 GHz CMOS VCO tuned by accumulation-mode MOS varactor. Department of Applied Electronics, Lund University, Sweden.
Higher values are reached throughout the moderate inversion zone because the concentration of defect electrons in the gate oxide decreases and, therefore, the carrier current is low. If the voltage continues to fall, the varactor reaches the depletion zone. There the parasitic resistance is related to the resistive losses of the electron movement. 8 times that of the defect electrons, the parasitic resistance in the depletion zone reaches very low values, even lower than those obtained in the strong inversion zone.
2001) RF CMOS varactors for wireless applications. D. Thesis, Aalborg, Denmark. Pedersen, E. (1999) Performance evaluation of CMOS varactors for wireless RF applications. Proceedings of the 17th NorChip 99 Conference, Oslo, Norway. , 2003). With PN-junction varactors, MOS varactors present a large capacitance per area and tuning range. However, the tuning curve has a more abrupt shape, which can be a drawback for certain applications, such as VCOs (Porret, Melly and Enz, 2000). The two most important types of MOS varactors are the NMOS and PMOS varactors.