By Ulrich L. Rohde
Written for an viewers of RF microwave engineers and graduate-level scholars, this article covers vital elements of oscillator improvement: from basics, machine & board expertise, provide noise, research equipment, layout, and optimization methodologies, to useful layout of assorted unmarried and matched oscillators. With an emphasis on systematic composition of the full layout process, chapters comprise transistor versions, large-signal S-parameters, resonator offerings, calculation & optimization of noise in oscillators, validation circuits for wideband resonator VCOs, and extra. broad appendices express particular examples, calculations, designs, and CAD suggestions.
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Additional info for Design of Modern Microwave Oscillators for Wireless Applications: Theory and Optimization
For the purpose of this discussion, it should be assumed that designers have the ability to do their own parameter extraction to obtain an accurate model, or receive these data from the transistor manufacturer or as part of the foundry service. While the bipolar transistor models tend to be more physics-based, the FET models are mostly based on analytic equations, which are generated using curveﬁtting techniques. There are two types of models: 1. The models which describe DC and RF behavior are SPICE-type models, which means that they can be incorporated in a frequency/time domain simulator and give reasonable agreement with measured data in both the DC and RF areas.
When experimenting with these parameter extraction programs, under certain conditions input parameters for the nonlinear models are generated which no longer have any practical meaning. This means that they are not realizable in the manufacturing process, but in a given frequency range, they may give the right S-parameters. The inclusion of noise parameters solves this problem to a large extent [27, 28]. The following discussion presents the information obtained for bipolar transistors and their modeling.
Another good example of the complexity of a VCO is presented in Figure 2-29. This oscillator is used in the Rohde and Schwarz portable receiver Model EB-100 and is used for battery operation. The oscillator operates at 1000 MHz, and the output is provided via inductive coupling to the resonator. The main inductor is the 20 nH value, and the 2 mH/100 nH transformer was chosen for output simulation. The phase noise of this oscillator can be seen in Figure 2-30. Another voltage-controlled oscillator, intended to be used in battery-operated receivers, is shown in Figure 2-31.