Education and Social Integration: Comprehensive Schooling in by S. Wiborg

By S. Wiborg

This publication lines nationwide rules in the back of the efforts of integrating schooling platforms in Europe. In a few areas of Europe, akin to the Nordic international locations, a excessive point of social integration used to be accomplished via introducing radical complete schooling structures. in contrast, in international locations corresponding to Germany and England, finished schooling both failed nearly thoroughly, or used to be basically in part carried out. in line with a wide-ranging ancient research, this booklet deals the 1st totally comparative rationalization of the divergent improvement of entire schooling in Europe.   

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Standing armies, civil bureaucracies, legal codes, and national taxation, among other national institutions, stood in stark contrast with the forest of particularistic organs that were associated with earlier periods. They also sparked the development of early capitalism in those towns that expanded into commercial markets and sites of preindustrial manufacture. According to German Cameralist ideas, it was the task of the state to increase its economic power through acquisition of a larger share of world trade and, simultaneously, to establish social institutions.

According to Perry Anderson (1974), the nature of absolutism should be analyzed as a new form of feudal domination. Absolutism was a system of concentrated force for counteracting the prolonged crisis of the feudal society during the medieval period. Andersen succinctly formulates it as “a redeployed and recharged apparatus of feudal domination” that was capable of becoming the “new political carapace of a threatened nobility” (18). Feudalism, as a mode of production, was originally an organic unity of the economy and polity, distributed as sovereign parcels with the village as the center wherein serfdom merged with economic exploitation and political-legal coercion.

Instead of initiating new reform plans for education, the governments were committed to maintaining the provision of education as it was, based on the Danish law of 1739. As a result, even after its personal union with Sweden, the Danish 1814 Act on Education was never effective in Norway. Fuelled by the rise of the Norwegian cultural-romantic movement, in which Norwegians sought to define and express their distinct national character as a counterbalance to that of the Danes, the notion of using education as a tool in nation building gradually took root.

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