By Elmer H. Antonsen
This paintings is a pragmatic guidebook for college kids of German. command of grammatically right German because it is spoken and written, in addition to introducing them to equipment and instruments of linguistic research within the components of phonology and morphology. parts of German fills a niche in complex undergraduate and graduate degrees of German language examine via providing extra complex innovations of the language in a gentle meant for useful use instead of theoretical discourse. not like books that deal with phonology in a cursory approach, this article delves into the issues of notice formation and the intricacies of inflection and derivation. It additionally emphasizes German's structural regularities and highlights how the likely never-ending sorts of German grammar mix in a logical type to shape a coherent entire. routines are incorporated all through to aid the scholar higher soak up the principles for real-world language use. esoteric ideas in the back of be aware inflection and declination, components of German offers scholars an in-depth examine the German language from the floor up. Its targeted method makes this publication an exceptional supplement to the paintings of much less particular grammar textbooks and stories.
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Additional info for Elements of German: Phonology and Morphology
There is, however, a significant difference between German and English l's, as indicated below. Alveolar lateral: [I], [t] [I. ] The apex is placed against the alveolar ridge and the back of the tongue is kept flat, while the air proceeds around the sides. This so-called 'pure' alveolar lateral is found in some Southern American varieties of English and always in standard German: Lupe [lu:pa] 'magnifying glass', Glas [glo:s] 'glass', kahl [kho:l] 'bald'. Most Americans learning German must consciously strive to prevent the back of the tongue from rising, as in the General American pronunciation of I (see below).
A voiced counterpart of the voiceless palatal fricative is sometimes heard in certain German pronunciations of words like ja (with a good deal of friction in the consonant), but this is always a variant of the glide U] (see below), and we will not be concerned with it. Velar (flat) fricatives: voiceless voiced [xl ([y]) By raising the back of the tongue in close approximation to the velum so that air may flow over the flat surface of the tongue causing friction, with tense muscles, and by forcefully expelling air, we produce the voiceless velar (flat) fricative in German Bach [bax] 'brook', Koch [k\)x] 'cook', Buch [bu:x] 'book', Bauch [bawx] 'belly'.
It is produced by closing off the flow of air through the mouth by raising the front of the tongue against the palate and letting the air escape through the nasal passage, as in Spanish nino [nipo] 'boy'. Velar nasal: [g], [Jj] Stopping the flow of air by placing the back of the tongue against the velum, allowing the air to escape through the nasal cavity by lowering the velie, the voiced velar nasal is produced, as in Eng. king [ChII)], long [1~I)], longer [IJI)gj']; Ger. lang [lal)] 'long', langer [lel)-e] 'longer'.