English-Tibetan Dictionary of Modern Tibetan by Melvyn C. Goldstein

By Melvyn C. Goldstein

The recent Tibetan-English Dictionary of recent Tibetan surpasses present dictionaries in either scope and comprehensiveness. Containing greater than 80,000 lexical goods utilized in political, social, monetary, literary, and clinical discourse, this beneficial sourcebook comprises the tens of hundreds of thousands of latest phrases which were coined or that experience come into use seeing that Tibet was once integrated into the People‘s Republic of China in 1951. The dictionary lists lexical goods attribute of the precise written style that was once utilized by Tibetan govt officers as much as 1959 in addition to new terminology utilized in the Tibetan exile groups in South Asia. It includes either the middle lexical terminology utilized in lifestyle and conventional glossy writing and lots of proverbs and sayings that seem usually in modern literary fabrics. The entries offer spoken pronunciation and hundreds of thousands of illustrative sentences.

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Thus the nasal is velar in word-final position in the isolation form for "child" [zwärj]. , it has an alveolar nasal. When a word is used in a syntactic construction, its phonetic form in isolation rather than its underlying form is used. Thus when the word zwan is used in a genitive construction, the form [zwärj] rather than [zwän] is used. The velar nasal is realized as a cluster of a velar nasal and the voiced velar stop [g]. In lento speech the following syllabic division obtains: 2. da] ISG Not all velar nasals can be accounted for by the rule deriving the velar nasal from the alveolar nasal: (14) quhlm kdiga- 'white' 'spot, espy' Because of these and other cases where the two segments are in contrast, we postulate the velar nasal as an underlying segment.

Thus when the verb sä 'drink' is followed by the object imi'water5, the final vowel of the verb is replaced by the first vowel of the noun, resulting in the phonetic structure [simi], not [simi] 'drink water*. Since palatal continuants can be derived by rules, we postulate them to be variants of the underlying alveolar continuants [s] and [z]. Alveolar affricates become palatalized when followed by a high vowel. The rule is obligatory for the high front vowel and optional for the high round vowel.

Thus if a disallowed syllabic onset or coda were going to emerge, an epenthetic vowel must be inserted. The tone realization conditions require a vowel insertion, if the absence of the tone were about to affect the grammatical coding that is realized by the tone. The consonant cluster constraint requires epenthesis if a disallowed cluster were about to emerge. The syllabification process takes place from left to right. The vowel is inserted in the first place where the violation of the syllabic structure oc- 30 2 Phonology curs.

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