By Stephane Bonelli
Erosion is the most typical explanation for disasters at earth-dams, dikes and levees, no matter if via overtopping and overflowing, or inner erosion and piping. This booklet is devoted to the phenomenon of inner erosion and piping. it isn't meant to be exhaustive at the topic, yet brings jointly the various most recent foreign examine and advances. Emphasis is put on actual tactics, how they are often studied within the laboratory, and the way try out effects could be utilized to levees and dams.
The effects from a number of study initiatives in Australia, France, the Netherlands and the us are lined by way of the authors. Our target has been to percentage our newest findings with scholars, researchers and practitioners. knowing the failure of an earth-dam or a levee by means of erosion in a unified framework, no matter if inner erosion or floor erosion, calls for non-stop learn during this box. we are hoping that the reader will achieve wisdom from this publication that ends up in additional development within the demanding box of the protection of levees and dams.
1. state-of-the-art at the probability of inner Erosion of Dams and Levees via trying out, Robin Fell and Jean-Jacques Fry.
2. touch Erosion, Pierre Philippe, Remi Beguin and Yves-Henri Faure.
3. Backward Erosion Piping, Vera Van Beek, Adam Bezuijen and Hans Sellmeijer.
4. centred Leak Erosion, Stephane Bonelli, Robin Fell and Nadia Benahmed.
5. dating among the Erosion houses of Soils and different Parameters, Robin Fell, Gregory Hanson, Gontran Herrier, Didier Marot and Tony Wahl.
Chapter 1 state-of-the-art at the probability of inner Erosion of Dams and Levees via checking out (pages 1–99): Robin FELL and Jean?Jacques FRY
Chapter 2 touch Erosion (pages 101–191): Pierre PHILIPPE, Remi BEGUIN and Yves?Henri FAURE
Chapter three Backward Erosion Piping (pages 193–269): Vera VAN BEEK, Adam BEZUIJEN and Hans SELLMEIJER
Chapter four centred Leak Erosion (pages 271–341): Stephane BONELLI, Robin FELL and Nadia BENAHMED
Chapter five courting among the Erosion houses of Soils and different Parameters (pages 343–381): Robin FELL, Gregory HANSON, Gontran HERRIER, Didier MAROT and Tony WAHL
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Extra resources for Erosion in Geomechanics Applied to Dams and Levees
The height of the channels is typically 4 – 10 (d 15 ); that is, often less than 2 mm. 3) For any head less than a critical head, the development of the channels stops. If the head is increased, erosion begins again. 15 shows some examples. 5 of the flow path length L. For heads less than this, the progression of the pipe reaches a stable condition. For heads greater than the critical head, the piping channel extends upstream and breaks through to the reservoir. 4) The erosion then progresses rapidly as the erosion in an open pipe.
17. These experiments showed that: 1) Backward erosion initiates in the slot through the strata overlying the eroding soil representing a crack or drainage ditch excavated through the strata, and progresses in multiple small “channels” rather than a single “pipe”. 18 shows an example of the development of the channels. 2) The channels are quite small. The height of the channels is typically 4 – 10 (d 15 ); that is, often less than 2 mm. 3) For any head less than a critical head, the development of the channels stops.
De Mello et al. [VER 88] described problems with termite channels in the foundations of a 30 m high earth dam. “Canaliculi” or biologically worked soils have been encountered at the following dam sites: Tucuruí, Vereda Grande, Balbina, Samuel and Kararao [DEM 85]. 13). 13. 2. Estimation of crack width and depth of cracking The width and depth of cracks or hydraulic fractures, which can be present in the embankment, may be estimated using methods detailed in Fell et al. [FEL 08]. These are based on a review of the literature on observed cracking, including Sherard [SHE 73], Talbot [TAL 94] and Lawrence [LAW 02], and the results of numerical modeling by Bui et al.