Everyday Tsonga by M. Ouwehand

By M. Ouwehand

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Swi vekeni halenu! ) them (the things) here! va byekwz ku hatlisa! ) them to hurry up! Rule: When the imperative is preceded by an object concord, the final -a of the singular is changed into -e, the final -ani of the plural into -eni. Sentences: Ku lunghile, swi lunghile ) _ . ^ rf 5· Ku lulamile, swi lulamile ) Swi ringanile ) _ . : I am asking for water) Ndzi kombela malamula — may I have some oranges, please. Ndzi kombela ku ya kaya — may I please go home. ) ku lahla — to throw away, to bury, to loose ku cukumeta — to throw away ku bola — to rot ku lomba — to borrow, to lend ku lotlela ) ku khiya ) — to lock ku khiyela ) ku byela — to tell (somebody something) 37 EVERYDAY lere (5) — ladder xilotlelo ) __ — key khiya (5) ) TSONGA leswaku — that, so that (ha) kanyingi — often hinkwako — everywhere kun'wana — elsewhere Exercises: 1.

38 EVERYDAY TSONGA Lesson 11 THE TSONGA EQUIVALENT OF THE ENGLISH «TO HAVE", PRESENT TENSE A. Present tense affirmative: Present tense negative: ndzi ni — I have a ndzi na — I have not u ni — you have a wu na — you have not u ni — he, she has a nga na — he, she has not hi ni — we have a hi na — we have not mi ni — you have a mi na — you have not va ni — they have a va na — they have not Rule: The verb to have, meaning "to possess", is in Tsonga expressed as "to be with". : I (am) with. (This construction is only used in main sentences.

Ha yini ? Hikuva u swekile byalwa. Timbhoni ti kwihi ? Ti kona. Xana u karhele ? E-e, a ndzi karhalanga. Vana a va yingisanga swinene, kutani a va twisisanga mhaka. Xana tatana u etlele ? E-e, a nga etlelangi, u pfukile. The chiefs rule die people, they examine the cases. The people should know the laws. The government helps to build schools. The judge 49 EVERYDAY TSONGA has not condemned the prisoner, he has set him free. Are you guilty, or are you not guilty ? I am not guilty. The chief has not fined the husband, but he fined the wife.

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