First Aid for the Basic Sciences: Organ Systems (2nd by Tao Le, Kendall Krause, Elizabeth Halvorson, William Hwang

By Tao Le, Kendall Krause, Elizabeth Halvorson, William Hwang

Publish 12 months note: First released August twenty fourth 2008

The crucial spouse to your first years of clinical school

From Tao Le, writer of First reduction for the USMLE Step 1

First reduction for the elemental Sciences: Organ platforms, 2e offers you an exceptional figuring out of the elemental sciences relative to human organ structures with which all clinical scholars has to be favourite. the second one version has been thoroughly revised to add a extra student-friendly and approachable textual content, an up to date high-yield quick evaluation part, new photographs, and more.

• supplies accomplished single-source insurance of the total moment 12 months of clinical school
• comprises very important heritage fabric such a lot different stories go away out
• Covers the high-yield subject matters and evidence verified at the USMLE
• bargains full-color photos, studying aids, tables, and concise textual content to streamline your examine and assist you excel in coursework and at the USMLE
• offers a pragmatic framework for knowing the anatomy, body structure, pathohysiology, and pharmacology of every human organ system
• Mirrors the desk of content material of First reduction for the USMLE Step 1 to facilitate study
• Written via scholars who aced the USMLE and reviewed through best faculty

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Extra info for First Aid for the Basic Sciences: Organ Systems (2nd Edition) (First Aid Series)

Sample text

Increased GNa+ III IK+ I. Decreased GNa+ IV If II. Increased GCa2+ III. Increased IK+, decreased ICa2+ Targeting Class II B-blockers (phase IV), class Class Ia, Ib, Ic (phase 0), class III antiarrhythmics IV Ca channel blockers (phase 0) (phase III) AV = atrioventricular; SA = sinoatrial. FAST-RESPONSE (VENTRICULAR) ACTION POTENTIAL Fast-response action potentials occur in the atrial and ventricular myocytes, the bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Phase 0: Rapid upstroke. Voltage-gated Na+ channels open.

The five phases and how they relate to systole and diastole are as described in the following sections. Diastole Mitral valve (MV) opens, and the ventricle rapidly fills until the pressure of the LV is greater than that of the LA and the MV closes. Corresponds to P and PR intervals on ECG. Isovolumetric contraction is the period between MV closure and aortic valve (AoV) opening. Since the MV and AoV are closed, the LV is a closed chamber and contracts under a constant volume. Eventually, LV pressure is greater than that in the aorta and the AoV opens.

ANS, autonomic nervous system; CO, cardiac output; RBF, renal blood flow; SV, stroke volume; TPR, total peripheral resistance. 32 CHAPTER 1 KEY FACT Mechanisms to regulate BP: ■ Baroreceptor reflex (short term): Baroreceptors in the sinus are always active, and increased activity indicates l in BP ■ RAAS (long term) ■ Cerebral ischemia leading to hypercapnia ■ Hypoxia with PO2 < 60 mm Hg ■ Severe volume depletion leading to ADH secretion ■ Atrial stretch mediated by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ■ Autoregulation CARDIOVASCULAR has a fast (minute-to-minute) response, whereas the RAAS is hormonally controlled with a slower regulation response.

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