By Nikolay Kornilov
Although the fission of heavy nuclei used to be chanced on over seventy five years in the past, many difficulties and questions nonetheless stay to be addressed and responded. The reader might be awarded with an outdated, yet power challenge of this box: The contradiction among advised Fission Neutron (PFN) spectra measured with differential (microscopic) experiments and indispensable (macroscopic and benchmark) experiments (the Micro-Macro problem). the adaptation in ordinary power is very small ~3% however it is strong and we won't clarify the variation as a result of experimental uncertainties. will we degree the PFN spectrum with excessive accuracy? How may well we examine result of diverse experiments to supply higher accuracy? Are our conventional theoretical versions right? What will be performed to unravel the Micro-Macro challenge in destiny? those questions are mentioned during this monograph for the reader. the present paintings should be of curiosity to graduate scholars and researchers, fairly these operating in nuclear and neutron physics.
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Additional info for Fission Neutrons: Experiments, Evaluation, Modeling and Open Problems
So if we did all integration correctly we should have Watt distribution for LS. 13. This simple calculation demonstrates the scale of effect. The real correction factor requires special efforts and investigations. Limited number of angles between FF and neutron direction and as a consequence big step for Δμ for second type experiment is an additional problem for investigation. Eight pairs of FF detectors, covered angles for − 1 < μ < 1 were used in experiment . Analytic relations describing experimental data  were constructed as function of energy and cosine of neutron emission in LS.
1 spectrum for μ = 0, 2 μ = − 1 (mainly from heavy fragments), 3 μ = 1 (mainly from light fragments). The figure was taken from  The MC code developed for simulation of this effect  confirms this qualitative argument. 11). So, the conclusion is: the scattering on the fission chamber material may change shape of PFNS very much. The distortion effect is very sensitive to peculiarity of the construction and should be estimated for each experimental setup. The azimuth angle in  was fixed by the “belt” of FF counters.
The first assumption is rather reasonable one, and is used practically in any models of neutron emission in fission. However, the second assumption—Maxwellian shape in the CMS—cannot be predicted in frame of traditional model. 6). We should have in mind this compromise. From one side we are using semiempirical relation which does not have physical support. From another side we are using real physical values like, excitation energy, temperature, CMS velocity, light and heavy fragment, and so on.