Flavor Physics for the Millennium by Jonathon L Rosner

By Jonathon L Rosner

This booklet is dedicated to the huge topic of flavour physics, embracing the query of what distinguishes one kind of undemanding debris from one other. The articles diversity from the leading edge of formal thought (treating the physics of additional dimensions) to information of particle detectors. even supposing targeted emphasis is put on the physics of kaons, charmed and sweetness debris, most sensible quarks, and neutrinos, the articles additionally facing electroweak physics, quantum chromodynamics, supersymmetry, and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Violations of primary symmetries corresponding to time reversal invariance are mentioned within the context of impartial kaons, good looks debris, electrical dipole moments, and parity violation in atoms. The physics of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and of quark plenty are defined in a few aspect, either from the viewpoint of current and destiny experimental wisdom and from a extra basic standpoint, the place physicists are nonetheless trying to find the proper idea.

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Their study established that the muon produced in pion decay is a distinct particle, v,,, that is different from either ve or ve. This observation suggests that the weak (charged-current) interactions of the leptons display a family structure, (30) We are led to generalize the effective Lagiangian (24) to include the terms £v-\ = "rTf"""7^1 ~ 75 ^ ^"t 1 ~ 75^e + hx- > (31) in the familiar current-current form. With this interaction, we easily compute the muon decay rate as T(n -» eveVp) = 1927T3 (32) 22 With the value of the Fermi constant inferred from /?

In an applied magnetic field H, the free energy is Gsuper(-n ) — Gsuper(O) + H2 1 + ^ ^ I ihVip - (e*/c)Aip\2 (48) where e* and m* are the charge (—2 units) and effective mass of the superconducting carriers. ^o|2I=0, (49) the wave equation of a massive photon. In other words, the photon acquires a mass within the superconductor. This is the origin of the Meissner effect, the exclusion of a magnetic field from a superconductor. More to the point for our purposes, it shows how a symmetry-hiding phase transition can lead to a massive gauge boson.

Interpretation of the data favors a light Higgs boson. 4. " 40 4-2 Parity violation in atomic physics Later in TASI00, you will hear from Carl Wieman 56 about the beautiful tabletop experiments that probe the structure of the weak neutral current. * At very low momentum transfers, as in atomic physics applications, the nucleon appears elementary, and so we can write an effective Lagrangian for nucleon /? 26 is the axial charge of the nucleon. Accordingly, the neutralcurrent interactions are £ep - —7=e~i\{l - 4xw - 7s)e P7 (1 - 4xw - 7s)p , ^ e n = ITlz^7A(1 - 4xw - 7 5 )e h-y (1 - j5)n , (96) where xw = sin 2 9\v • For our purposes, we may regard the nucleus as a noninteracting collection of Z protons and ,/V neutrons.

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