Food Microbiology, Third Edition (Issues in Environmental by Martin R. Adams, Maurice O. Moss

By Martin R. Adams, Maurice O. Moss

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Additional resources for Food Microbiology, Third Edition (Issues in Environmental Science)

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As with all generalizations there are exceptions, particularly among those bacteria that produce quantities of acids as a result of their energy-yielding metabolism. 0. 2). 2 as CO2 is lost from the egg after laying, is a commonplace exception to this. 2 Approximate pH ranges of some common food commodities 26 Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Micro-organisms in Foods alkaline foods, is fermented shark, produced in Iceland and known as hakar, which has a pH of 10–12. The acidity of a product can have important implications for its microbial ecology and the rate and character of its spoilage.

Firstly, each organism exhibits a minimum, optimum and maximum temperature at which growth can occur. 12 Cardinal temperatures for microbial growth Temperature (1C) Group Minimum Optimum Maximum Thermophiles Mesophiles Psychrophiles (obligate psychrophiles) Psychrotrophs (facultative psychrophiles) 40–45 5–15 À5 to þ5 À5 to þ5 55–75 30–40 12–15 25–30 60–90 40–47 15–20 30–35 (Adapted from ICMSF 1980) pH and aw. Micro-organisms can be classified into several physiological groups based on their cardinal temperatures.

It has been shown that many microorganisms respond to growth at lower temperatures by increasing the proportion of unsaturated and/or shorter chain fatty acids in their membranes and that psychrotrophs generally have higher levels of these acids than mesophiles. Increasing the degree of unsaturation or decreasing the carbon chain length of a fatty acid decreases its melting point so that membranes containing these will remain fluid and hence functional at lower temperatures. As the temperature increases above the optimum, the growth rate declines much more sharply as a result of the irreversible denaturation of proteins and the thermal breakdown of the cell’s plasma membrane.

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