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Additional resources for Gauge theories in particle physics: A practical introduction (Graduate student series in physics)
3. First energy levels of a typical three-level ion. |g , |e , and |m denote the ground, excited, and metastable states, respectively. The direct detection of the ion’s ﬂuorescence is typically made on a strong transition, most often the resonance line. 3. The strongest transition (the resonance line) is the one connecting the ground state |g to the excited state |e . The lifetime of the excited state |e is of the order of some tens of ns, giving rise to a natural linewidth of the corresponding atomic transition of the order of some tens of MHz.
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Bollinger, T. B. Mitchell and W. M. Itano, Phase-locked rotation of crystallized non-neutral plasmas by rotating electric ﬁelds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 73–76 (1998). T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. -P. Huang, W. M. Itano and R. H. Baughman, Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas, Science 282(5392), 1290–1293 (1998). W. Lange, Private communication, 2009. D. J. Berkeland, Linear Paul trap for strontium ions, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73 (8), 2856–2860 (2002).