By T. Honjo (Editor), F. Melchers (Editor)
The gut is colonized by means of a powerful neighborhood of commensals, that has profound results at the immune funtions. the connection among intestine microbiota and the immune process is certainly one of reciprocity: commensals have vital contribution in nutrient processing and schooling of the immune process and conversely, the immune procedure, quite gut-associated lymphoid tissues performs a key position in shaping the repertoire of intestine microbiota.
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Extra info for Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)
This observation, together with the occasional formation of rudimentary mesenteric LNs and cervical LNs in LTα−/− mice, indicates an incomplete penetrance of the gene deﬁciency (Banks et al. 1995; De Togni et al. 1994). In contrast to gene targeting of LTβR in mice leading to the complete absence of all LNs and PPs (Futterer et al. 1998), in utero inhibition of LTβR by injecting an antagonist receptor fusion protein was insufﬁcient to block organogenesis of all LNs. The development of mucosadraining LNs such as mesenteric, cervical, sacral and lumbal LNs occurred normally, although PPs and some peripheral LNs were absent in LTβR-Igtreated mice (Rennert et al.
Interestingly, aly/aly mice have normal expression levels of most adhesion molecules in the spleen and intestine, although MAdCAM-1+ cells are absent from the spleen (Koike et al. 1997). In addition, ligation of the LTβR was shown to induce a normal increase in VCAM-1 mRNA levels in aly/aly cells, although VCAM-1 protein levels were not induced (Dejardin et al. 2002; Matsumoto et al. 1999). Some homeostatic chemokines (CCL21) were normally expressed, whereas others were reduced or absent (CCL19, CXCL13) (Fagarasan et al.
2002). Dependent on the expression levels of adhesion molecules, two different types of mesenchymal cells were described in mesenteric or peripheral LNs of newborn mice (Cupedo et al. 2004b). 30 D. Finke · D. Meier The two populations express different levels of the homeostatic chemokines CXCL13, CCL19, and CCL21, suggesting that they may differ in the capacity to recruit mature lymphocytes. The initial mesenchymal speciﬁcation of organizer cells in developing mesenteric LNs and PPs is independent of LTαβ, as single VCAM-1+ organizer cells are found in the fetal gut of LTαdeﬁcient mice (Finke et al.