Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Mysticism: A Short by Majid Fakhry

By Majid Fakhry

From the advent of Greek philosophy within the 8th century to trendy instances, this ebook charts the evolution and interplay of philosophy, theology, and mysticism within the Islamic context.

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A reference to the pilgrimage to Makkah, during which Muslims are supposed to cast stones at Satan and kiss the Black Stone at the Ka‘abah. SYSTEMATI C PHI LOSOPHY AND FREE THOUGHT X 37 You know, my friend, how bravely in my house, For a new marriage I did make carouse; Divorced old barren reason from my bed, And took the Daughter of the Vine for spouse. For is and is-not, though with rule and line, And up-and-down by logic I define, Of all that one should care to fathom, I Was never deep in anything but wine.

1406), we find that anger and lust are more common in regions lying below the equator, whereas patience, temperance and poise are more common in regions closer to the North Pole. In the domain of psychology, al-Kindi’s thought reveals a large measure of complexity. Thus, in a summary of the views of ‘Plato, Aristotle and the other philosophers’, he presents an essentially Platonic and Neoplatonic theory of the soul, as a divine substance ‘derived from the substance of God’ by way of emanation. This soul differs radically from the body which it seeks constantly to hold in check, just as the rider seeks to hold his mount in check.

Upon these distinctly Plotinian premises, which he doubtless derived from the apocryphal Theology of Aristotle, on which he is is said to have written a commentary, al-Kindi bases his thesis that the One is the originator of everything, not in the manner of emanation adumbrated by the writer of the Theology but rather in the manner of creation ex nihilo laid down in the Qur’an. ‘For this is the nature of primary operation (fi‘l)’, or bringing things out of nothing, which ought to be predicated of God alone.

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