By Michael Wang
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Additional resources for Lithography
Copyright 2009, Elsevier. Fig. 11. SEM images of two-dimensional array of resist micro-Fresnel lenses. Figure 11 presents SEM images of two-dimensional arrays of the resist micro-Fresnel lens with blazed structures. These patterns were transferred to SiO2 glass substrates using plasma etching. The inner radius rm of m-th zone and cross-sectional profile are expressed using the following equations. rm = 2 mλ0 f + (mλ0 )2 S(r ) = mλ0 cr 2 + n − 1 1 + 1 − ( k + 1)c 2 r 2 k = −n 2 (1) (2) (3) Therein, r signifies the distance from the center of the Fresnel lens (rm ≤ r ≤ rm+1); λ0, n, and f respectively denote the operation wavelength, refractive index, and primary focal length.
1a). IMEC’s program on immersion lithography found that, for example, photoresist material can partially peel off during the IH pass (Fig. 1b). Fig. 1. a) Schematic representation of possible defect issues with immersion lithography; b) example of damaged photoresist material inspected with top-down optical microscope; and c) example of damaged residues at the wafer edge, inspected by tilted SEM (45°). A second concern involves the cleanliness of the wafer edge outside the EBR edges. The IH pass wets not only the near-edge top surface, but also the curved wafer edge and even part of the bottom surface.
Femtosecond Laser Nonlinear Lithography 43 Fig. 2. Femtosecond laser lithography processes in the case of a negative-tone resist. Threedimensional polymeric structures can be created. In 1997, Kawata et al. , 1997). , 2001). The bulls were based on polymeric materials and their feature sizes were approximately 10 μm, similar in size to red blood cells. In this report, the lateral spatial resolution was as high as approximately 100 nm, which is below the diffraction limit. , 2004) have been demonstrated using this nonlinear lithographic technique.