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Additional resources for Logic and Language: Studies Dedicated to Professor Rudolf Carnap on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday
As a matter of fact, however, many systems of mutual understandable expressions of intersubjective perceptual contents and of common ideas and feelings have developed, and such systems are what we usually call 'natural languages ' by means of which the so-called artificial or constructed languages are usually explained and learned. The syntactical rules of (natural) languages are neither conventional stipulations nor invariable norms but empirically observable regularities (with a greater or smaller number of exceptions) concerning the formation of the expressions of the various languages.
Precipitated the Critique of Pure Reason. Question and answer notwithstanding, Mill and others persisted in doubting that such judgments were possible at all. At length some of Kant's own clearest purported instances, drawn from arithmetic, were sweepingly disqualified (or so it seemed; but see § II) by Frege's reduction of arithmetic to logic. ' It was largely this latter question that precipitated the form of empiricism which we associate with between-war Vienna - a movement which began with Wittgenstein's Tractatus and reached its maturity in the work of Carnap.
Conceived as a collection of expressions of contents of consciousness. As such contents are continously developing as new external and internal experiences crop up, it is impossible to prescribe eternal or necessary rules for the usage oflinguistic symbols (expressions). The regularities actually found by analysis of living (or dead) linguistic systems are relative to a given stage in this development, even if some of those regularities are changing more slowly than others. To define a certain language by means of (in terms of) the regularities existing at a given moment is merely to fix our concept of the language concerned but will not stop the development of the language itself, which development will sooner or later make our (synchronic or structural) definition obsolete.