Microwave Electronic Devices by Theo G. van de Roer PhD (auth.)

By Theo G. van de Roer PhD (auth.)

This booklet bargains with microwave electronics, that's to assert these parts of microwave circuits that generate, enlarge, become aware of or modulate signs. it's in response to a path given within the electric Engineering division of Eindhoven college due to the fact that 1985 and on approximately 20 years of expertise within the microwave box. a bit of to my shock i discovered that there have been hardly ever any textbooks that addressed the explicit homes and calls for of microwave units, together with vacuum units and their interactions with circuits. a variety of books exist on semiconductor digital units, dealing in an outstanding means with the fundamental machine physics, yet being just a little short on standard micro­ wave features. however there also are many books that target electromagnetic concept and passive circuits, treating units irrespective of the underlying physics. In among there are a few fullyyt dedicated to a specific gadget, for instance, the GaAs MESFET. with reference to tubes the placement is even worse: books that deal with the elemental ideas tend to be rather previous and sleek books usually pay attention to particular units, like excessive energy tubes. So apparently there's room for a e-book like this one. Its objective is to supply an undemanding realizing ofmicrowave digital units, either vacuum and semiconductor, at the one hand in terms of the fundamental physics underlying their operation and at the different relating to their circuit applications.

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C. c. quantities. c. modulation of the beam. c. c . c. power is positive for the fast wave and negative for the slow wave. In other words, the kinetic energy of the beam increases when the beam is modulated by a wave going faster than the electrons (linear accelerator mode) and decreases with a modulating wave that is slower (amplifier mode). The conclusions of the mathematical analysis are thus in agreement with the Brillouin argument. 3 The traveling wave tube The continuous interaction demands that the wave and the electrons run at approximately the same speed and this poses a difficulty.

12 Density waves on an electron beam. a standing-wave structure, being a resonator, is always a narrow band device. A waveguide is inherently broad band and moreover offers the possibility of continuous interaction between the field and the electron beam. To understand how a wave and an electron beam traveling together can lead to amplification we use a simple picture introduced by Brillouin [2]. Suppose we have an electric field in the z-direction given by E z = E, cos(mt - kz). Evidently this has a wave nature and the phase velocity is Vph = m/k.

The best known of these is the magnetron which will be discussed in the following paragraph. Another is the backward-wave oscillator. Here use is made of a wave circuit with a negative slope in the (J)---k diagram (Fig. 19). The phase velocity wlk is positive so the wavefronts can travel along with the beam and interaction is possible. The group velocity dwldk, however, is negative so that the electromagnetic wave transports the energy in the opposite direction. Since at the ends of the tube there are always reflections a feedback occurs.

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