Microwave mixers by Robert V Pound; Eric Durand; C G Montgomery

By Robert V Pound; Eric Durand; C G Montgomery

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1 cm with a tube of average input capacitance. If the mixer must be tunable, provision for adjustment of the effective resonator radius can be made. This can be done by the inclusion of screw plugs of large diameter so placed around the outside wall of the resonator that, when they are screwed into this wall, they fill the region bet ween the top and bottom resonator walls for a part of the circumference. The average radius is thus reduced, and hence the resonant freThe coupling ratio for the signal input quency of the circuit is increased.

Lation occurs not only for a discrete set of voltages corresponding to an exact integral value for n, but also if the reflector voltage is varied Operation under this condition slightly either side of the exact value. reveals one of the most useful properties of the reflex oscillator, namely, that of electronic tuning. The slightly incorrect reflector-voltage setting gives rise to slightly out-of-phase currents in the cavity resonator and these currents can be resolved into components, one in the correct phase and one at 90° to this.

A typical low-frequency circuit using a lighthouse triode as a mixer is shown in Fig. 13. The tube is biased near cutoff by the self-biasing resistor in the cathode circuit and then driven relatively hard by the injected local-oscillator voltage. Consequently, on the negative half-cycle very little change in plate current occur”, whereas on the positive half-cycle considerable plate current flows. The average pl~te current, therefore, depends upon the magnitude of the voltage at the grid, and since this voltage is composed of the local-oscillator voltage pl(ls a small signal voltage, the beat or difference frequency will exist as a component of the plate current.

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