Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada by J. F. Ammarati

By J. F. Ammarati

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Other features Apical germ pore The apex of some spores has an apical germ pore. This pore is actually a thin spot through which the spore may germinate (Fig. 104A). At times the apical germ pore is so broad it causes the apex of the spore to appear flattened. Guttulate spores When one or more oil globules are present in the spore, the spores are described as guttulate (Fig. 42 A and B). When they are absent, the spores are termed eguttulate. 33 well as a microscopic study of the spores, called ascospores in the Ascomycota, are essential for an accurate identification of Discomycetes, the only class of the Ascomycota treated in this book.

This feature only occurs in certain genera of mushrooms, for example, the genus Galerina. The top of the spore as it sits on the basidium (Fig. 15) is the apex of the spore. In mushrooms and other fungi that forcibly eject their spores, each spore is attached obliquely to the sterigma (Fig. 15). In puffballs and its relatives each spore is centrally positioned on the sterigma, so that the longitudinal axis of the spore corresponds to that of the sterigma (Fig. 16). Some puffballs and stinkhorns produce very short sterigmata, or the sterigmata are entirely lacking, in which case the spores are described as sessile (Fig.

They sometimes grade gradually into the cap surface, but often a change in the orientation, size, or coloration of the hyphae indicates the beginning of the cap cuticle. The hyphae of the cap trama turn downward to form the trama of the gills. If you follow the hyphae of the cap trama downward into the tissue of the stalk, you can usually see where the stalk trama begins because the hyphae usually become more or less longitudinally arranged, parallel to the long axis of the stalk. The hyphae themselves may be parallel to one another or somewhat interwoven.

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