Roman Legionary AD 69-161 by Ross Cowan

By Ross Cowan

Among advert sixty nine and 161 the composition of the Roman legions was once remodeled. Italians have been virtually completely changed by way of provincial recruits, males for whom Latin was once at most sensible a moment language, and but the 'Roman-ness' of those Germans, Pannonians, Spaniards, Africans and Syrians, fostered in remoted fortresses at the frontiers, used to be exceptionally robust. just like the Italian yeomen who had battled Pyrrhus and Hannibal centuries prior to, the provincial legionaries have been imbued with the conventional ethos of the Roman military. They have been hugely aggressive, jealous in their honour, and pushed through the necessity to continue and increase their reputations for virtus, that's manly braveness and excellence.
The war of the interval, from the large legion as opposed to legion confrontations within the Civil struggle of advert sixty nine, during the campaigns of conquest in Germany, Dacia and Britain, to the defence of the frontiers of Africa and Cappadocia and the savage quelling of inner revolts, gave considerable chance for virtus-enhancing job. regardless of a thorough switch within the make-up of the legions, the interval advert 69-161 used to be characterized by means of continuity and revival. The vintage conflict formation that had baffled Pyrrhus and conquered Hannibal was once revived. Heroic centurions persevered to guide from front, and customary legionaries vied with them in monitors of valour. The legions of the period can have been provincial yet they have been certainly Roman in service provider and ethos.

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C. , Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome, second edition, Oxford: 2006 Campbell, D. , Esercito e Marina di Roma Antica (Mavors vol. com  Gilliam, J. , ‘Milites Caligati’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 77 (1946), 183–91. Reprinted in Gilliam, Roman Army Papers (Mavors vol. 2), Amsterdam: 1986, 43–51 Goldsworthy, A. , Imperial Roman Legionary (Osprey Warrior 72), Oxford: 2003 Isaac, B. , ‘The Legion as a Society’, Historia 33 (1984), 440–56 Mann, J.

FURTHER READING Websites Most of the inscriptions referred to above (AE, CIL, ILS, IMS, RIB, Tit. com References BGU = Berliner Griechische Urkunden Birley, E. , ‘A Note on the Title “Gemina”’, Journal of Roman Studies 18 (1928), 56–60 Bishop, M. , and Coulston, J. C. , Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome, second edition, Oxford: 2006 Campbell, D. , Esercito e Marina di Roma Antica (Mavors vol. com  Gilliam, J. , ‘Milites Caligati’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 77 (1946), 183–91.

In fact, the best account of a legionary battle formation comes from reign of Hadrian, and suggests something more akin to a Macedonian phalanx (Arrian, Battle Line Against the Alani 15–18 – most likely an atypical formation). VTFVNPG 4DPUMBOE ª3)$"SDIJWF C  EQUIPMENT AND APPEARANCE The essential panoply of the legionary was the pilum, gladius and scutum, helmet (galea or cassis) and some form of body armour (lorica) (Bishop & Coulston 2006; Robinson 1975). 7). 90). 12), but it was also used for thrusting (cf.

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