By Insa Gulzow
Insa G?lzow analyzes the purchase of intensifiers through young ones buying German or English as their first language. according to a comparative research of intensifiers and similar expressions within the languages, she examines the longitudinal construction info of six German-speaking and 6 English-speaking teenagers with reference to while and during which contexts the intensifiers German selbst/selber and English x-self (myself, your self, himself, etc.) look. As intensifiers evoke choices to the referent in their concentration and relate a valuable referent to extra peripheral replacement referents, they're an immense linguistic skill to constitution the individuals of a kid's early discourse. via integrating intensifiers into their utterances, little ones can determine themselves as principal. The proposal of being incorporated or excluded in a definite situation is proper for kids whilst interacting with their mom and dad and/or different young children. during improvement, little ones collect a few either linguistic and non-linguistic talents that represent them as more and more self sustaining and useful brokers. during this procedure, intensifiers are a tremendous linguistic machine with which youngsters can negotiate and touch upon their participation in a given occasion. the 3 components of the amount consist first, of a close research of the intensifiers selbst/selber and x-self and comparable expressions comparable to allein and through x-self within the languages. certain realization is given to the truth that in English, intensifiers and reflexive pronouns are exact expressions whereas in German they're precise. moment, earlier result of comprehension stories are rigorously reviewed as a way to relate them to the findings in longitudinal construction info. 3rd, an in depth research of the kid's early use of intensifiers and comparable expressions is gifted.
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Extra info for The Acquisition of Intensifiers: Emphatic Reflexives in English and German Child Language
PART ‘Paul got up’. c. Die Situation hat sich verschlechtert. 3SG detoriorate ‘The situation detoriorated’. d. Es lebt sich gut hier. 3SG well here ‘One lives here comfortably’. referential bodily motion anti-causative facilitative The fact that German allows a variety of non-referential uses of the reflexive is an important point to note regarding the fact that German children neither produce intensifiers nor reflexive pronouns in subject position. In contrast to the English children, they do not receive information that the form of the intensifier can also be used referentially, but receive information that the reflexive can also be used non-referentially.
For the language-learning child the use of x-self as demonstrated in (34) combines characteristics of reflexive anaphors with those of intensifiers. On the one hand, the expression has clear referential properties, a fact reflected in the discussion of cases of ‘long-distance binding’ in languages like English, Mandarin, Japanese, or Icelandic. The Mandarin example (35) below illustrates that the self-expression zìjí can be used to signal coreference both within a local and within a non-local domain (cf.
3. Compositionality of the AGENT proto-role The alternative scenarios evoked by selbst or allein contrast with the whole concept of an agentive subject. In sentences with von selbst/von allein on the other hand, the contextual alternatives contrast with only some aspects of an agentive subject. Dowty’s theory of thematic roles gives an account of the compositionality of two basic thematic proto-roles: that of an AGENT and that of a PATIENT. It will be used here to illustrate how German von selbst/von allein and English of one’s own accord can relate to alternative causes which are excluded.