By William Aspray, Paul E. Ceruzzi
The impression of a commercialized net on American company, from the growth in e-commerce and changes through bricks-and-mortar companies to file-sharing and neighborhood construction.
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A computer in that department of that university could 34 Paul E. Ceruzzi connect with all the other computers in that department without querying any computers outside the building, and it was reasonable to assume that a large percentage of queries to the address file would be of this type. arpa; old ARPANET addresses were mapped on to it. int. Most readers are familiar with these, except for the last one. fr for France. us. The letters used to name hosts were restricted to a subset of ASCII and the twenty-six letters of the English alphabet.
46 It may still be, even with all the turmoil those companies have gone through since 1995. UUNet never bought the rights to name a sports stadium, but today the MCI division of Verizon in Ashburn, Virginia, is located on UUNet Drive. In 1991, PSINet, UUNet, and other commercial providers agreed to set up a connection among one another, in effect creating a network independent of the NSF and not subject to government restrictions. The Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) allowed a free exchange of data among its subscribers, who paid a modest initiation fee to join.
Computer vendors could adopt the protocols without paying a royalty or obtaining a license, in contrast to IBM’s Systems Network Architecture or Digital Equipment Corporation’s DECnet, which were guarded by their suppliers. A decision by ARPA’s Information Processing Techniques Office, then under the direction of Robert Kahn, to fund the incorporation of TCP/IP into the Unix operating system accelerated this feedback loop. Unix was developed at AT&T’s Bell Labs, which owned a trademark on the name, but AT&T did not restrain others from using it.